Hygiene of nutrition
Nutritional value and functional properties of flaxseed
The nutritional value and functional properties of flaxseed Linum Usitatissimum L. are analyzed. There are three groups of compounds in the flaxseeds, characterized by specific biological activity and functional properties: PUFA ω-3 family, soluble dietary fiber in the form of mucus, and lignans, which have phytoestrogen properties. Data on the chemical composition of flaxseed, obtained from various sources, are characterized by high variability. The flaxseeds contain 35–45% oil, which contains 9–10% of saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic), about 20% monounsaturated fatty acids (mainly oleic acid), and more than 70% α-linolenic fatty acids acid. The protein content in seeds of flax varies from 20–30%. Proteins of flaxseeds are limited by lysine, but are characterized by a high coefficient of digestibility (89,6%) and biological value (77,4%). The content of dietary fiber reaches 28% by weight of whole seed, with the ratio of soluble and insoluble fractions from 20:80 until 40:60. According to the content of B-group vitamins and some minerals flaxseeds are close to the crops. Vitamin E in the flaxseeds is mainly in the form of γ-tocopherol (9,2 mg/100 g of seeds). Flaxseed is the richest in the vegetable world source of lignans (up to 0,7–1,5% of dry weight of seed), among which prevails secoisolariciresinol diglucoside. The chemical composition of flaxseed has identified areas in the study of preventive and functional properties. PUFA ω-3 family, dietary fibers and phytoestrogen lignans determine hypolipidemic and antiatherogenic actions of flaxseed. Flax seeds under the conditions of storage and processing technologies are harmless food product. Consumption of 50 g/day of flaxseed showed no adverse effects in humans.
Methods of nanoparticles control in food and biological objects.
Report 2. Filtration, centrifugation, spectral methods and electrophoresis
The large number of the analysis methods of engineered nanoparticles and nanoobjects as a part of disperse systems on the basis of principles of a membrane filtration (micro, ultra- and a nanofiltration) ultracentrifugation, spectral methods, including dynamic and static laser light scattering, Raman light scattering, low-angle X-ray scattering, x-ray techniques, laser decomposition spectroscopy, and other methods are developed. Mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma can be successfully used in studying of nanomaterials chemical composition in conditions when there is additional independent information on presence of analyzed substance in a nanoscale form. Methods of electrophoresis in a supportive environment and capillary electrophoresis are beginning to be successfully applied in the study of artificial nanomaterials. However, in terms of the identification of engineered nanoparticles and nanoobjects in complex, multicomponent, heterophase systems, that the objects of the environment and, in particular, food products are, all these methods currently can’t compete transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, specified for purpose of certain particular applications, features of which been described in a previous report in detail.
The influence of probiotic fermented milk product on colon microbiota, hematological parameters and cell immunity in rats
Influence of probiotic fermented milk product on the intestinal microbiota, hematological parameters and immune status of the experiment in vivo at Wistar rats was studied. It was shown, that entering of probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium bifidum 791, Bifidobacterium longum B-379M and Lactobacillus acidophilus NK1 и Streptococcus thermophilus in composition fermented milk products in the total quantity of 2,1107 CFU/ sm3 in digestive tract within three weeks has a positive influence on the resident of colon microbiota. Significant increasing of population levels of Вifidobacterium, Enterobacteriaceae with normal biochemical properties, registered a strong tendency to increase the content of Lactоbacteria, which led to a decreasing the number of potential pathogenic transient flora with pathogenic factors. Monitoring of body mass in experimental animals has shown that including of fermented milk product with probiotic strains in diet has a positive influence on the feed uptake. Probiotic properties of the product also have stimulated effect on the immune status of the rat: improvements in cell immunity (increasing the relative amount of T-helper cells, immuneregulatory index) and hematological parameters (increase of the average concentration of hemoglobin in erythrocyte).
The significance of some potentially pathogenic microorganisms in occurrence of food toxicoinfections.
Report 2. Assessment of the role of toxigenic strains of Bacillus cereus
The data on nomenclature, classification and taxonomy of aerobic spore-forming Bacillus cereus are summarized. The main features of the two types of diseases, caused B. cereus, and statistical information on outbreaks of food-borne disease caused by B. cereus are presented. The detailed description of emetic toxin cereulide properties are given. The analysis of existing methods for detectionof the presence of B. cereus and their toxins in foods are conducted. The data on the use of different cell models for studying the cytotoxic effects and the enterotoxigenic properties of B. cereus are described. Results of own researches allowed to conclude that certain types of products, primarily made from milk and vegetable raw materials, can be a source of transmission to humans of toxins produced by B. cereus. It is shown that in the absence of competing vegetative microflora increases the risk of accumulation of toxins produced by the most stable populations, including toxigenic spore B. cereus. Tested and proposed for the practical implementation of the dry culture media on the basis of the balanced growth and selective components, dyes and buffer mixtures. The developed environment were used for the isolation and identification B. cereus during microbial control these groups of foods.
Optimization of amino-acid profile of protein-peptide products used by preparation for functional drink
The message is devoted to optimization of amino acid structure of protein/peptide composition for its use as a component (a key ingredient) of functional drinks of various purposes. A basis of a composition forms protein/peptide product (PPP) received by enzymatic hydrolysis of meat and bone residues of processing of a bird, representing rather unvaluable food raw material. Molecular-mass distribution of fractions in PPP is quantitatively determined by an exclusion chromatography method of average pressure with the subsequent integration of chromatograms with a weight method. It can be supported the essential decrease of initial antigenicity of processed food raw materials as almost 80% from all sum protein/peptides and peptide/amino acid fractions are submitted by amino acids and peptides which molecular weight ≤6 kD. The analysis of amino acid structure of PPP shows that the increase of its biological value assumes the increase of its score on four irreplaceable amino acids: leucine, tryptophan, phenylalanine and tyrosine (totally). For getting of the protein/peptide compositions of high biological value, the «above enrichment» of PPP by total protein of the cow milk is carried out. The modeling of a process of getting a two-component mix is carried out by a graphic method. The least percentage of the added total protein of a cow milk to PPP, at which is reached the amino acid score of the mix equal to 1,0, makes 26% from weight of the mix. The subsequent publications will be devoted to an estimation of biological value of a key component of functional food in the form of instant drinks in experiments in vivo on laboratory animals.
Composition and clinical use of bovine colostrums
In recent years, a large number of the researches giving fuller picture about structure and properties of bovine colostrums (BC), that allows to apply it at various diseases in clinical practice was carried out in the world. The critical analysis of the modern literature showed bovine colostrums is rich with immunoglobulins, antimicrobials and growth factors in comparison with nature milk. The positive effect of supplementation of bovine colostrums in diarrhea in persons with immune-deficiency syndromes, for treatment NSAID-induced gastrointestinal disturbances, at postoperative responses and in treatment of upper respiratory infection is supposed.
The study of the dietary fiber’s and different functional food ingredients’ interaction
The aspects of dietary fibers’ and different food ingredients’ interaction are considered in this article; in particular, the questions of dietary fibers’ interaction with the main foodstuff components (proteins, fats, vitamins, etc.), especially functional purpose; and the interaction of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), which is part of dietary fiber, with the main foodstuff components – protein, vitamins and antioxidants (tocopherol, and riboflavin). It was found that with increasing of MCC content in the diet, there was increase of vitamins sorption(especially tocopherol), with its maximum at 3 g of MCC. This is probably due to the relatively high porosity and properties of MCC to absorb and retain water, lipids and other food ingredients. These findings point to the need to consider the possibility of sorption of polysaccharides and, in particular in the preparation of starch-rich foods and dietary recommendations for their use.
Biochemistry of nutrition
State features of the antioxidant system at healthy people of the basic ethnic groups of Baikal Lake
The antioxidant system of blood is the important factor that characterizes the adaptive possibilities of human organism. The estimation of state of the antioxidant protection and lipid peroxidation systems at men and women of two Baikal Lake ethnic groups was carried out. Spectrophotometric and fluorometric methods were used during the study. Increase of by-products of lipid peroxidation with decrease of activity of the antioxidant protection system was observed at men of the Buryat ethnicity in comparison with Russian ones. At women of the Buryat ethnicity was observed the increase of the primary products of lipid peroxidation with the adequate antioxidant response in comparison with Russian ones.
Effect of diet fat content on vitamin status of rats
The influence of low (1%) and high (31%) diet fat content (sunflower-seed oil and lard 1:1 at a ratio of 1:1) on vitamin A, E, B1 and B2 status of growing Wistar rats (8 rats per group) with initial body weight 80–100 g has been investigated. The semi-synthetic diet contained vitamin mixture in doses covering the physiological requirement of these animals. The increase of fat content (31%) in the diet due to the presence of vitamin E in sunflower-seed oil automatically lead to 1,7-fold increase consumption of this vitamin compared to the control group. Diet fat content did not affect the level of vitamins B1 and B2 in rat liver. Excessive intake of fat and vitamin E for 6 weeks did not influence on the content of blood plasma vitamin E and rat liver vitamin A occurs at the same time, while significant 1,9 fold elevation of liver vitamin E level and 26 per cent increase of blood plasma vitamin A concentration. The almost complete exclusion of fat from the diet had no effect on blood plasma level of alpha-tocopherol and retinol, but resulted in a significant decrease of vitamins A and E content in rat liver by 40 per cent, indicating a deterioration of sufficiency with these fat-soluble vitamins. The analysis of the results obtained in this investigation and literature data have suggested that under excessive as well as under decreased consumption of fat there is a risk of the development of polyhypovitaminosis. Vitamin complex supplementation is required to prevent a possible worsening of vitamin status under diets with modified fatty component.
Features of cytokines and hormone status in type 2 diabetes patients at alimentary exposure
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a main noninfectious disease, making significant influence on patients quality of life and life time. The medico-social role of diabetes is defined by wide prevalence of a disease in population and high risk of development of incapacitating complications. Therefore, considerable efforts of modern medicine focused on the study of etio-pathogenetic mechanism and the possibility of dietetic correction in this disease. In this review discusses efficacy of dietary therapy in type 2 diabetes, the role of insulin-like growth 1 (IGF-1)/insulin of pathogenesis microvascular complications. The role of inflammation in the development of microvascular complications, in the first place cytokines, act on the insulin signal pathway and affect the intracellular inflammatory kinase cascade was shown. Also, it is shown that adipose tissue inflammation modulates B-cell function and promotes progressive reduction of insulin secretion. When blood glucose levels are elevated, Glucagon-like peptide – 1stimulates insulin secretion, decrease glucagon secretion, improve B-cell function, and slows gastric emptying It determines the necessity of fulfillment of further researches of cellular and humoral immunity in diabetes mellitus and the development of personal methods in prevention and treatment of this disease.
Dietary correction of nutrition status in patients with irritable colon syndrome
Hygienic and dietology estimation of cereal breakfast (oat muesli and crispbread) were carried out on 137 irritable colon syndrome (SRK) patients with functional chronic constipation. It is established that inclusion of cereal breakfast in a diet of such patients positively influences on motor-evacuation function of digestive tract and promotes improvement of indicators of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is important for patients with overweight and type 2 diabetes. Positive improvements of research allow making a cereal breakfast use recommendations: muesli in number of 50 g/days (with milk or kefir), crispbread and crunchy snacks in number of 100 g/days – in SRK patients with functional chronic constipation dietary nutrition.
The problems of modern rehabilitology (proceedings of VII International Conference)
The article is devoted to rendering of the proceedings of the VII International conference on scientific and practical arrangements of the modern rehabilitology. Over 300 specialists participated in the conference, among them a big number of physicians and prominent scientists. The main report was made by a corresponding member of RAMS А. Romanov, who dwelled upon the problems of development and quality of specialized multi-field rehabilitation centers, specializing in providing modern highly qualified medical aid and extending human professional longevity. The report of full member of RAMS, prof. V. Tutelyan, was devoted to problems of nutrition, first of all, to fundamentals of nutriology, modern methods of diagnostics of human nutrition status and ways of dietary correction, performed with the use of computer programs. 2 symposia were held within the framework of the conference. One symposium was devoted to actual problems of rehabilitology in rehabilitation centers affiliated to the Department of Presidential Affairs of the Russian Federation, the other one – to an adverse influence of weather on human health.
Probiotic Heart cheese «Harmony» comprising L. plantarum TENSIA®, influences blood pressure and metabolic health indices
The probiotic L. plantarum strain TENSIA® (DSM 21380) is a novel microorganism having antimicrobial and antihypertensive properties. The aim of the study was to test the efficacy of the consumption of the cheese, comprising the novel strain TENSIA® on multiple health markers of humans. Human intervention trial showed that the blood pressure lowering effect of cheese, comprising L. plantarum TENSIA® was evident in healthy volunteers with high normal blood pressure up to normal values. The 3-week consumption of the probiotic cheese did not increase the CVD risk factors like BMI, the level of plasma lipids and glucose as well as inflammatory and immunological markers of human body.
Anthropometry in internal medicine and nutritional management
Anthropometry: the modern statistical analysis and significance for internal medicine and nutrition
Anthropometry – a technique, allowing to obtain the necessary features for the characteristic of human body’s changes in norm and at pathology. Statistical analysis of anthropometric parameters, such as – body mass, length, waist line, hip, shoulder and wrist circumferences, skin rolls of fat thickness: on triceps, under a bladebone, on a breast, on a venter and on a biceps, with calculation of indexes and an assessment of possible age influence was carried out for the first time in domestic medicine. Complexes of showing interrelations anthropometric characteristics were detected. Correlation coefficients (r) were counted and the factorial (on a method main a component with the subsequent rotation – a varimax method), covariance and discriminative analyses (with application of the Kaiser and Wilks criterions and F-test) is applied. Study of intergroup variability of body composition was carried out on separate characteristics in healthy individuals groups (135 surveyed aged 45,6±1,2 years, 56,3% men and 43,7% women) and at internal pathology: patients after a gastrectomy – 121 (57,7±1,2 years, 52% men and 48% women); after Billroth operation – 214 (56,1±1,0 years, 53% men and 47% women); after enterectomy – 103 (44,5±1,8 years, 53% men and 47% women); after mixed genesis proteinenergy wasting– 206 (29,04±1,6 years, 79% men and 21% women). The group of interlocking characteristics which includes anthropometric parameters of hypodermic lipopexia (rolls of fat thickness on triceps, a biceps, under a bladebone, on a venter) and fatty body mass was defined by results of the analysis. These characteristics are interconnected with age and growth and have more expressed dependence at women, that reflects development of a fatty component of a body, at assessment of body mass index at women (unlike men). The waist-hip circumference index differs irrespective of body composition indicators that doesn’t allow to characterize it with the terms of truncal or extremal lipopexia. Importance of anthropometry complex application of was proved at epidemiological researches for healthy individuals and patients with various diseases. The revealed morphological features confirm the necessary of the development of this medical anthropology direction for clinic of internal diseases.
Nutrition of sportsmеn
Status of nutrition and cell immunity in weightlifters
The analysis of average daily nutrient intake, indexes of lipids metabolism and parameters of cell immunity on 30 weightlifters and 14 individuals, who does not be engaged in sport, are carried out. Results of the present research show the imbalance in athletes diet with unfavourable ratio of proteins, fats, carbohydrates as 1:1,7:3 – in women and 1:1,4:2,9 – in men. Lipid storage disease include the rise of low-density lipoproteins level (in women – 3,2±0,2; in men – 3,4±0,2 (р<0,05); in control group – 2,2±0,3 mmol/l) and the fall – of high-density lipoproteins (in women – 1,3±0,1; in men – 0,9±0,1; р<0,05); in control group – 1,7±0,2 mmol/l). Result of disbalance in sportsmen immune system was statistically authentic decrease in an immunoregulatory index of CD4/CD8 (in women – 0,89±0,08, in men – 0,77±0,11; p<0,05) at the expense of increase of the relative maintenance of cytotoxic CD3+CD8+ T-killers (in women – 39,42±4,0; in men – 41,28±3,28%; p<0,05) and reduction of the T-helpers CD3+CD4+ content in peripheral blood (32,48±1,06 and 31,33±2,95%; p<0,05) at 17% of women and 42% of male athletes owing to intense physical activities. This suggests that athletes engaging in longer periods of intensified training can exhibit an inefficiency of cell immunity. The cause of immune response decreasing can be metabolic disorders. The imbalance in athletes’ diet leads to dislipoproteinemia, which play a pathogenetic role in cell immunosuppression.