In to the question of selenium using in case of foodstuffs enrichment
The analysis of different selenium compounds toxicity and level of selenium intake in different countries are given in the article. It showed that population of Russian Federation have not defined selenodeficiency. Thus there is no need in wide-ranging fortification of foodstuff by selenium. For increasing of selenium level in particularized foodstuffs (biology activity supplements, specialized foodstuff for pregnant, children, dietetic, medicinal and prophylactic foodstuff) are preferred the organic forms of selenium. Inorganic forms of selenium (selenites and selenates) could use only in the composition of biology activity supplements. However in this case the organic form is more preferably too.
Characteristics of collagen’s material bifidogenic properties
It is still essential to search for new, available food ingredients with bifidogenic effect, to study their safety, efficacy and production effectiveness upon the creation of functional foods. The review considers protein products such as collagens and their hydrolyzates, which are used in culture mediums as growth factor. They are treated, besides carbohydrate prebiotics, as potential bifidogenic nutrients. Collagen hydralyzates contain all amino acids, required for bifidobacteria growth. That is why it is considered essential to provide control over its biosafety. However, recyclable materials of animal origin are included into a list of Specific Risk Materials of prion disease agents transmitting. Collagen hydralyzates are preserved up to distal intestine parts. This fact approximates their qualities to oligosaccharids’ type of prebiotic food fibers, related to the lack of absorption and hydrolytic stability. The additional study of mechanisms of bifidobacteria’s forcing is required. It can be made at the expense of the modification of the albuminous cell metabolism during the collagen hydralyzats’ unilization.
Biochemistry of nutrition
Effects of dietary fat level on the xenobiotic metabolism enzymes activity and antioxidant enzymes in rats
Male Wistar rats received fatfree diet or diets containing 5, 10 and 30% of fat (sunflower oil + lard, 1:1) for 4 weeks. The direct relationship between dietary fat level and ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity of CYP1A1, methoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity of CYP1A2, pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity of CYP2B1 and testosterone 6β-hydroxylase activity of CYP3A was found. Activities of key enzymes of phase II xenobiotic metabolism (total activity of glutathione transferase, activity of UDP-glucuronosyle transferase) and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, paraoxonase-1 and heme oxygenase-1) also increased with higher dietary fat level.
Postprandial dynamics of the content of hydrolytic enzymes of blood in men with different levels and specificity of daily muscle loading
In a cohort of healthy young men with different levels of physical activity the content of hydrolytic enzymes (ELISA) in serum was studied. In the conditions of relative physiological rest in sportsmen (fighters and skiers) were defined differently directed changes of the level of hydrolytic enzymes during the various periods after a breakfast. Changes associated with a sports orientation and level of daily physical activity were revealed.
Hygiene of nutrition
The separate and combined effects of calcium pantothenate deficiency and cadmium intoxication on rat reproductive function
The publication presents investigation evaluated of separate and combined effects of calcium pantothenate deficiency and cadmium (Cd2+) intoxication on rat reproductive function. The experi-ments were performed on 280 adult and 890 offspring of Wistar rats. Reproductive function was estimated by fertility study, prenatal and postnatal development of offspring. The separate and combined effects of and cadmium intoxication during the mating period and pregnancy had no effect on fertility and fecundity of rats, pre-and postimplantation loss, the survival of offspring, and not caused the abnormal development of skeleton and internal organs. However, in prenatal ontogeny of this effect was manifested by lower body weight and fetal growth, postnatal – underdevelopment of rat pups in all morphological and functional studied parameters and increasing number of stillbirths in the offspring.
Detection of recombinantDNA in foods from Stacked Genetically Modified plants
A quantitative real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction method was applied to the detection and quantification of MON863 and MON810 in stacked genetically modified maize MON 810ЧMON 863. The limit of detection was approximately 0,1%. The accuracy of the quantification, measured as bias from the accepted value and the relative repeatability standard deviation, which measures the intra-laboratory variability, were within 25% at each GM-level. A method verification has demonstrated that the MON 863 and the MON810 methods can be equally applied in quantification of the respective events in stacked MON810ЧMON 863.
About the regulation of ionizing radiation using for food treatment in the international legislation
The international and European legislation in the field of ionizing irradiation (gamma rays, electrons or X-rays) using for food treatment for improving food safety, for disinfestation of plants or plant products and improving of technological characteristics of food are discussed in this article. Obtained data can be used for foundation of Russian legislation and normative documents in the field of radiation methods using in the food industry.
Features of feeding behavior of students of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia
The feeding behavior of students of Peoples Friendship University of Russia from 55 countries (557 persons) was studied by questionary method. Most students (83%) recognized the changes in nutrition after admission to the university. A quarter of students noted the ill health. The adaptation to the new nutrition type of at 12% per a year of study. About third (31%) rated their nutrition as good, 39% – as satisfactory, 20% – unsatisfactory at the moment of research. 80% of students broke a diet. About half of students (51%) regularly miss a breakfast, 34% and 15% – miss a dinner and supper. More than 60% of students eat hot meals not oftener than once a day. Insufficient consumption of fish, eggs and bean by students also was noted in the course of research. Irrationality of the educational schedule and the high prices for foodstuffs are leading causes of breaking of nutrition according to students.
Enriched and functional foodstuffs: similarities and differences
A comparison of fortified and functional foods on such parameters as destination, food group, the principles of enrichment with vitamins and/or macro- and micronutrients, doses and forms of vitamins and minerals, hygienic regulations of micronutrients usage and content in the final product, regulatory and technical documentation, duration of application, effectiveness, labeling, information for consumers has been carried out. Insufficiency and the need to improve the regulatory framework for functional foods are noted.
Functional performance of the cardiovascular system in patients with overweight and obesity
Was investigated 471 patients with obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Direct dependence between degree of expressiveness of obesity and the clinical status, severity of infringement of a functional condition of cardiovascular system, frequency of development of complications is revealed.
Features of hormone metabolism in reproductive age women with metabolic syndrome
Aim of this study was the investigation of feature of hormonal status in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). 111 reproductive age women were included in the study. According to diagnostic criteria for MetS of Society of Cardiology of the Russian Federation (2009) they were divided into two groups – study group (n=52) and control group (n=59). It was studied composition of body (fat mass, skeletal mass, lean mass, total, intracellular and extracellular fluid), parameter of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, parameter of hormonal status. Study of hormonal status in reproductive age women with MetS showed a higher level of fasting and postprandial levels of insulin and C-peptide, hyperleptinemia and a reduced level of sex hormone-binding globulinn (SHBG). We suggest that serum leptin and SHBG levels may be used as an additional diagnostic criteria in these patients.
Influence of a low-calorie diet with inclusion of probiotic product containing bacterias Lactobacillus plantarum Tensia™ DSM 21380 on clinical and metabolic characteristics in patients with obesity and arterial hypertension
In a number of studies it is shown that regular use of the probiotic products containing Lactobacillus plantarum Tensia™ DSM 21380 in complex dietary treatment, not only modulates intestinal microflora, but also has a positive influence on a functional condition of cardiovascular system including levelels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The aim of this research was to study the influence of dietotherapy with inclusion of the probiotic product containing Lactobacillus plantarum Tensia™ DSM 21380, on clinical and metabolic characteristics in patients with obesity and accompanying arterial hypertension (AH).
THE ROLE OF MICROELEMENTS IN NUTRITION
Morphometry characteristic of the gut mucous membranes condition in growing rats with different selenium provision
The purpose of the given work was to research an influence of polysynthetic diet with various levels of selenium on a condition of distal small intestine mucous membranes in rats. Mucous membranes of distal small intestine were studied by common morphological and morphometrical methods. The histological estimation of influence of quantity of consumed selenium has shown that adverse changes in a mucous membrane of intestines of the rats receiving low selenium diet are most expressed, and least – at the animals receiving a diet as much as possible enriched organic form of selenium.