Biochemistry of nutrition
Relationship between changes in peroxide oxidation lipoide index, cоenzyme Q10 and free fatty acids by of rats depending of fatty acid component in the ration
Ontogenetic peculiarities of relationship concentration of coenzyme (Ко) Q10, peroxide oxidation lipoide (POL) content, peroxidation index (PI), concentration of omega 3 and omega 6 PUFA and saturated fatty acid in blood serum and liver of rats of 1, 3, 9 and 12 months old are studied. In blood serum pronounced riverse dependence was discovered between КоQ10 concentration and POL process intensivety in rats of 3 to 6 month old, fed palm and linseed oil. Direct relationship was established between TBA-active products in liver of all animal groups and peroxidation index. Value PI can be used for evaluation of potential substrates of POL in experiments and for creation of ration with definite fatty acid composition.
Hygiene of nutrition
Toxicological sanitary characterization of silver nanoparticles introduced in gastrointestinal tract of rats
Water suspensions of silver nanoparticles were introduced intragastrically to growing male Wistar rats daily for 28 days. There were studied animals mass gain, relative masses of viscera, intestinal barrier resistance against protein macromolecules, DNA oxidative damage, tissue non-protein thiol levels, first and second phase of xenobiotic detoxication system activity, lysosomal membranes stability in liver together with routine blood biochemical and hematological indices and caecal’s microbiocenose state. The data testifying to possible toxic risks, connected with reaction of silver’s nanoparticles is obtained.
Lipids metabolism at aboriginal adolescents in Russian European North
The aim of our research was to investigate the contents of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins in blood plasma of aboriginal adolescents of Russian European North (komi, n=104). It was established that there are specific Lipemic index at aboriginal adolescents: low level of the general cholesterol, triglycerides, transport lipoproteins both their albuminous components and raised proportion ω-6/ω-3 fatty acids concerning recommended specifications. Level of fat-soluble vitamins also has been considerably lowered. Adolescents living in 62°N differed as a completely higher level of atherogenous fractions of lipids, than the adolescents of Circumpolar regions (65°N) having traditional character of nutrition.
Food behavior of consumers (for example, Chelyabinsk)
Sociological poll of inhabitants of Chelyabinsk concerning a balanced diet was conducted. Every second chelyabinets needs change of the food, but thus has for this purpose no sufficient money resources. Deficiency in a food of animal protein, the majority of vitamins, macro- and microelements and saturation of a diet by carbohydrates and fats was shown. It was established that the products of mass consumption: bakery, dairy, meat, fat-and-oil products and sweets can be considered as potential products for enrichment, oriented for low-and middle-income countries primarily.
The significance of some potentially pathogenic microorganisms in occurrence of food toxicosis.
Part 1. S. aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxins
The data on the nomenclature, classification and properties of staphylococci and staphylococcal enterotoxins produced by them are presented. The analysis of cultural and biochemical properties of 137 strains of staphylococci isolated from raw milk and «Russian» cheese was performed. The high degree of correlation between the ability of S. aureus produce enterotoxins and the presence of enzymes coagulase, thermostable DNase, and other factors of pathogenicity is established.
Influence wheat bran on organism vitamin (experiment on rats)
The inclusion of wheat bran (at a dose of 2,3 and 4,6% of the dry weight) in the semi-synthetic diet of rats under combined deficiency of vitamins (20 and 50% of the adequate level) did not have a significant effect on vitamins C, B1 and B2 liver levels, riboflavin blood plasma level, and thiamine and riboflavin urinary excretion. The consumption of bran in high dose has been accompanied by a decrease of retinol blood plasma level on 19–28% but it has no effect on liver retinol palmitate content. Bran intake in both doses resulted in a deterioration of rats sufficiency with vitamin E, which had been confirmed by a simultaneous significant decrease of blood plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration on 31–40%, and its liver level on 23–43%. The results obtained indicate the advisability of vitamin E enrichment of diets with a high content of dietary fiber.
Quality requirements for vitamins in the premix and nutritional supplements
A comparison of the functions of vitamins included in the premixes and food additives has been carried out. The normative documentation regulating the quality parameters, hygienic safety requirements and their usage in the food industry has been analyzed.
The alimentary status sisk of the hevophilia with the lesion of jointts
The diagnostic findings sick of a hemophilia with recurring hemarthrosis are presented. At studying of componential structure of a body by a method of bioimpedansometriya considerable fluctuations of an index of weight of a body, a poor development of a muscular fabric, increase in percentage of a fatty fabric that is connected with low physical activity and increase in the contribution of fat in power value of a food ration have been found out in patients. Results of research of an actual food by a frequency method with a quantitative estimation at sick of hemophilia and healthy students testify to probable risk of insufficient consumption of vitamins В1, В2 and calcium, magnesium that demands individual correction.
Efficacy of complex system of dietary provision of children in critical states.
Part 2. Developing a system of choice of a method and implementation of artificial nutrition of children in critical status
To increase efficacy of treatment of children in intensive care departments a system of dietary provision of children in critical status has been developed. A way of determining the time to start enteral nutrition for such children was determined. Study of the effectiveness of mixed (parenteral-enteral) feeding, showed its high efficiency as compared with exclusively enteral nutrition, thus recommend this method for children with resuscitation and intensive therapy.
Soups in human nutrition
The article gives information about the soups traditionally used by the population of Russia. A classification of soups, their nutrients and energy content, as well as the contribution of soups to daily nutrient consumption of the population are presented. Taking into account results of epidemiological researches of dietary the most popular types of first lunch dishes (soups) in the population of Russia were found out.
Selenium provision in heart failure of different aetiology
Determination of selenium status of patients with chronic heart failure of various etiologies showed reduced provision of selenium compared with the control group. Statistically significant increased serum levels of selenium have occurred on average 35,9% after the correction. Intake of sea cabbage jam led to a significant increase in the level of selenium in serum only at patients with deficiency of this trace constituent.
Methods of assessing the quality of the food products and dietary supplements
Determination by high performance chromatography, steroid saponins in a biologically active food supplements containing the extract of Tribulus terrestris
Steroidal saponins are bioactive substances of Tribulus terrestris and can be used to assess the quality of raw materials and processed products from them. For this purpose has been developed the method of qualitative and quantitative determination of steroidal saponins by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric and mass-selective detection and optimal conditions of sample preparation (70% methanol extraction with sonication and heating); also has been studied steroidal saponins composition of Tribulus terrestris (protodioscin, tribulosaponin B, metilprotodiostsin, terrestrozin H, prototribestin, gracillin and others were found).
NEW SPECIALTY FOODS - SOURCES OF TRACE ELEMENTS
New sources of organic form zinc
The Сomparative analysis of the efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis of the mussels meat has been carried out, using enzymatic preparations with proteolytic action called «Protozim», «Flavoenzyme» and «Pancreatine». Complexes of fermentolyzates of the mussels meat with zink have been obtained by the reaction of chelating. Prepared fermentolyzates and their complexes with zink have been determined by physicochemical methods. Composition of amino acids has been determined in fermentolyzates and in their complexes with zink has been characterized the content of zink. The valuation of molecular – mass distribution of peptide fractions of fermentolyzates and their complexes with zink has been given.
Nutrition of sportsmеn
Food status peculiarities, anthropometric, clinical and biochemical indices at professional sportsmen
Under steady state conditions in 66 athletes involved in weightlifting, bodybuilding, judo and taekwondo have studied features of the metabolic status. Data on matter-of-fact nutrition, body weight content within the inter-competition period, energy exchange, clinical and biochemical indices and physical acceptability indices were analyzed. As a result, the decrease indexes of metabolism at all the sportsmen and high-level caloric value at sportsmen who are engaged in weightlifting, which corresponds their energy expenditures, was revealed.