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Reviews

Indices of diet quality as a tool for integrated assessment of dietary intake

Annotation

The review presents an analysis of the construction and properties of indices of diet quality (IDQ), developed in different countries and known under different names: Diet quality index (DQI), Healthy eating index (HEI,) and other names. The analysis of the data on three directions of research on validation of IDQ - correlation with its components (internal validation), association with risk assessments of morbidity and mortality, and association with biomarkers of nutritional status and risk of noncommunicable chronic diseases (NCD), which strongly indicate the possibility of IDQ as a tool for epidemiological studies of the relationship of nutrition, nutritional status and health has been submitted. Analysis of the composition of various types of IDQ allowed to formulate general principles of their development (construction). IDQ are based on recommendations for healthy nutrition of the population and assess the degree of commitment of the population to adhere to the recommendations. The design of the IDQ should be applicable to all categories of the population, regardless of gender, age (older than 2 years), national and regional characteristics of nutrition of the population, which allows a comparative assessment of the diet quality of different categories of the population. IDQ focus on the assessment of four main aspects of a healthy diet: food diversity, adequacy of consumption of adequacy of consumption of major groups or some subgroups of the most valuable foods, moderation and balance of the diet. All IDQ consist of two groups of indicators-compo-nents: indicators of adequacy of food consumption and indicators of consumption of critically important food factors, the consumption of which should be limited, i.e. indicators of risk factors of NCD. The standard values of adequacy of consumption of both groups of indicators should be expressed in the «density» of consumption of foods and nutrients per 1000 calories or as a percentage of the total calorie intake. Based on these principles, it is planned to develop and evaluate the reliability and objectivity of IDQ according to the study of the dietary intake of Russian population.

Intestinal microbiota, nutrients and probiotics viewed from the «gut-lung» axis

Annotation

Disturbance of the bronchopulmonary system are among the most common and socially significant diseases, so, the prevention and treatment of these disorders are the priority tasks of practical health care. Being based on the accumulated literature data on the interaction of the intestinal microflora and respiratory tract, the role of symbiotic bacteria of the intestinal biotope has been discussed in the respiratory diseases’ pathogenesis.

The aim of the work was to analyze the results of experimental and clinical studies confirming the effect of intestinal microflora on the development and progression of respiratory diseases.

The analysis of the available data on the risk reducing of occurrence, duration and severity of symptoms of bronchial asthma when taking probiotics, both in childhood and in the adult population, has been carried out. The effectiveness of the probiotic microorganisms’ intake for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, viral infection, cystic fibrosis, and lung cancer has been analyzed. The main possible molecular mechanisms of the symbiotic bacteria prevention of the bronchopulmonary diseases development have been discussed in the article.

Conclusion. The probiotics usage in the complex treatment of bronchopulmonary diseases demonstrates encouraging results. Its potential may be useful in the treatment of various lung diseases. However, a number of questions have been related to the individual selection of specific strains, the dosage and duration of use to achieve sustained remission for a patient.

Enzymatic hydrolysates of food proteins for specialized foods for therapeutic and prophylactic nutrition

Annotation

The review considers some issues of obtaining, as well as physic-chemical, organoleptic, immunochemical (residual antigenicity) characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates from food proteins (EHFP) that are widely used in food products for various purposes, as well as assessing their biological activity. The results of experimental works and patents, which describe the most widely used approaches to the production of EHFP with desired properties (hydrolysates for therapeutic and prophylactic products), as well as assessments of biological activity and immunochemical properties are given. The use of various enzyme preparations (of bacterial, fungal and animal origin), as well as one- and two-stage hydrolysis schemes and options for instrumentation of fermentolysis processes are considered. It is concluded that in order to achieve the required reduction in antigenicity for hydrolysates used as part of therapeutic (hypoallergenic) foods (to values not higher than 10-S relative to the antigenicity of the original protein) membrane ultrafiltration stages are necessary. The main disadvantage of such hydrolysates is their unsatisfactory organoleptic properties (bitterness and high osmolarity) that can be improved using a number of additional technological approaches. The use of partial hydrolysates (or hydrolysates with an average degree of hydrolysis, with a residual antigenicity of 10-4 to 10-S) with significantly better organoleptic properties compared with deep hydrolysates in therapeutic foods is considered. Of considerable interest are the issues of immunomodulatory, antioxidant and hypoallergenic properties of EHFP. It has been suggested that soybean and chicken egg hydrolysates may be promising as functional ingredients with antimicrobial, antihypertensive and immunomodulatory effects in various specialized foods, as well as in cases of food intolerance only to cow milk proteins.

Formation of biological films by microororganisms in food productions

Annotation

The aim of this review is to analyze the problem of biofilm formation by pathogenic bacteria in food enterprises and the risks associated with this phenomenon.

The aspects of the formation of biofilms by pathogenic microorganisms at food industry enterprises have been considered from the point of view of the potential danger of infection and colonization of processing plants by biofilm-forming strains. Biofilms are the preferred form of bacteria existence. It is known that bacteria in a state of biofilm are protected from adverse environmental factors and antibacterial substances, they are often resistant to standard cleaning and disinfection procedures. The formation of biofilms on biotic and abiotic surfaces is a potential hazard, contributing to the constant circulation of pathogens in the conditions of food production and contamination of foods. The problem of biofilm formation is characteristic of all food enterprises.

Physiology and biochemistry nutrition

Immunological markers of alimentary-induced hyperlipidemia in Wistar rats

Annotation

Changes in plasma levels of the main groups of cytokines and adipokines may correlate with the severity of metabolic disorders in hyperlipidemia and obesity.

The aim of the study was to assess the significance of ghrelin, leptin, their ratio (L/Gh), and the cytokine profile as biomarkers at dietary-induced hyperlipidemia.

Material and methods. We used 48 female Wistar rats with an initial body weight of 123±1 g, which were divided into 6 groups. Group 1 (control) received a balanced semi-synthetic diet according to AIN93; group 2 - diet with excess fat (30% by weight); group 3 - a diet with the addition of 20% fructose solution instead of drinking water, group 4 - a diet with excess fat and fructose, group 5 - a diet with added cholesterol (0.5%), group 6 - a diet with cholesterol and fructose. On the 64th day of the experiment, the mass of internal organs was determined; the levels of cytokines and adipokines in blood plasma were measured by multiplex immunoassay.

Results and discussion. A decrease in the level of leptin was found in group 5 compared with the control and with groups 2, 4 and 6 groups (p<0.05). The lowest level of ghrelin was found in group 2 (p<0.05) against the background of high concentrations of leptin. Significant correlations were found between L/Gh and the total mass of animals (r=0.321; р=0.034), the relative mass of adipose tissue (r=0.439; р=0.003) and with the relative mass of the spleen (r=-0.460; р=0.003). In group 2, at the maximum L/Gh ratio, a significantly higher weight of adipose tissue was found, whereas in groups 3 and 5, at the lowest L/Gh ratio, the relative amount of total fat was the lowest. L/Gh ratio correlated with the level of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), RANTES, IL-18 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The concentrations of IL-17, IL-18, IL-4, IL-5, MIP-3a, IFN-γ, M-CSF and RANTES in the experimental groups were reduced compared with the control, with the most pronounced effect in group 5 together with the lowest L/Gh ratio.

Conclusion. The presence of a significant correlation between L/Gh ratio and changes in the weight of rats’ body, spleen, adipose tissue, as well as levels of cytokines involved in inflammation regulation, confirms the importance of L/Gh ratio as a biomarker in an in vivo model of dyslipidemia.

The impact of bilberry leaves' polyphenols on the anxiety level, spatial learning and memory of db/db mice

Annotation

Numerous experimental and clinical studies have shown high efficiency of plant polyphenolic compounds in restoring age-related memory and learning disorders. In the present study a functional food ingredient (FFI) was obtained by sorption of an aqueous solution of bilberry leaves extract on buckwheat flour, which allowed to concentrate polyphenols and increase their storage stability.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a developed FFI, enriched with bilberry leaves' polyphenols, on the anxiety level, locomotor activity, memory and spatial learning of db/db mice with genetical type 2 diabetes.

Material and methods. The experiment was conducted using 10 heterozygote male db/db mice and 10 homozygote male db/+ mice as the comparison control group (7 weeks of age). According to body weight, blood glucose level, the results of insulin resistance test and elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, animals were randomized into three groups: control group C1 - db/+ animals, control group C2 and experimental group G3 - obese db/db mice. Buckwheat flour was included into the diet of C2 group in a dose 22.5 g/100 g; FFI was included into the diet of G3 group in a dose 2.5 g/100 g (that was equal to 59.2±1.4 mg-eq gallic acid per 100 g of the diet). The anxiety level and general locomotor activity were evaluated in the EPM test. The evaluation of behavior, memory and spatial learning was performed using passive avoidance test (PAT). Glycated hemoglobin level was determined in blood, insulin and leptin levels were determined in blood plasma, general antioxidant activity was determined in liver cytosolic fraction.

Results and discussion. The obtained data on biochemical parameters and insulin resistance tests showed the absence of normalizing effects of developed FFI. However, the inclusion of polyphenol-containing FFI into the diet led to beneficial changes in physiological parameters. Animals of G3 group, provided with FFI, were significantly less anxious compared to both control groups. During PAT testing of short-term memory, no animals in G3 group entered to the dark compartment (0%), what demonstrated increased learning ability and well-established memory of these animals in comparison with C1 (50%) and C2 groups (80%).

Conclusion. The results prove the effectiveness of bilberry leaves' polyphenols, sorbed on the brown buckwheat flour, in the correction of central nervous system disorders in db/ db mice with genetically altered type 2 diabetes, what points at possible prospect of FFI inclusion in therapeutic products for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus .

Effects of polyphenols on activity of glycosyl hydrolases in the cecum of rats fed obesity inducing diets

Annotation

The results of experimental studies indicate that the preventive and therapeutic effects of polyphenols in obesity are accompanied by a significant decrease in the severity of dysbiosis caused by the predominance of fats and simple carbohydrates in the diet, especially fructose, and the restoration of the functional state of the microbiota.

The aim of the work was to study the effect of quercetin and resveratrol - polyphenols, widely represented in the daily human diet, on the activity of bacterial glycosidases in rats receiving diets high in fructose or fat and fructose.

Material and methods. Using spectrophotometric analysis, the activity of β-galactosidase (Gal), β-glucosidase (Glu) and β-glucuronidase (Glu) was studied in the content of the cecum of Wistar rats receiving a semi-synthetic diet and a 20% solution of fructose instead of drinking water (hfr diet) or a semi-synthetic diet with a high (30%) fat content and a 20% solution of fructose instead of drinking water (hf/hfr diet).

Results and discussion. Feeding rats with the hfr diet for 20 weeks led to the suppression of Gal activity by 35, Glu by 46 and Glu by 31%. With the inclusion of quercetin in the hfr diet at a dose of 34 mg/kg b.w. enzyme activity was restored to the control values and exceeded the level of activity in rats fed hfr ration without quercetin by 60, 100 and 47%, respectively, for Gal, Glu, and Glu. Feeding rats with the hf/hfr diet for 10 weeks did not have a significant impact on the activity of bacterial enzymes.

The inclusion of resveratrol in the hf/hfr diet at a dose of 10 mg/kg b.w. resulted in a decrease in Glu activity by 58 and Glu by 28%, and an increase in resveratrol dose to 100 mg/kg b.w. caused further suppression of Gal activity by 30, Glu by 76 and Gluc by 64% comparative to the activity in rats on the hf/hfr diet without resveratrol.

Conclusion. The obtained data suggest that quercetin restores reduced by hfr diet activity of glycosyl hydrolases of the cecum microflora of rats, most likely due to an increase in the representation of the types of enzyme activity carriers. The suppressive effect of resveratrol on the activity of glycosyl hydrolases of the cecum microflora of rats fed a hf/hfr diet may be the result of its direct action on enzymes and is not associated with the effect on the composition of the intestinal microbiota.

Hygiene of nutrition

Analysis of actual home nutrition of urban children of pre-school and school age

Annotation

The actual nutrition of the child population reflects the influence of both the socioeconomic conditions in the country and the local social environment of the child, while forming a reserve of adaptive opportunities and health in general.

Aim. Analysis of the actual home nutrition of urban children of preschool and school age.

Material and methods. A retrospective study was conducted to assess the actual nutrition of children and adolescents at home, living in the city of Perm. The method of 24-hour (daily) dietary recall for the weekend preceding the survey was used. Hygienic assessment of nutrition was made in accordance with the age physiological requirements. The observation group included children of preschool age and children who were studying in elementary, middle and high school. The total sample size was 717people (351 boys and366 girls).

Results and discussion. The rations of all analyzed age groups were deficient in vitamins B1, B2, C, A, E and calcium, in addition to vitamin E, protein and total energy in preschool age. Nutrition was unbalanced by the content of macronutrients: against the background of a sufficient protein quota in total dietary calorie intake, an excess of fats along with a lack of vegetable fats, animal proteins and total carbohydrates were found. Consumption of individual products didn’t always depend on the age. The main contribution to the daily calorie intake was made by inexpensive low-density foods - confectionery, sugar and fats (37-44% of energy). Products of mass consumption, bread, cereals and flour provided 21-25% of energy; milk and dairy products - 15% at a younger age and half as high in high school students; meat, poultry and fish, on the contrary, provided 15-17% in schoolchildren and less in the preschool age group; the share of fruits and vegetables was minimal in each of the age groups (3-6%). The actual diet of children and adolescents at home did not meet the physiological requirements. More than half of children had 3-fold meals, the intervals between meals reached 8 hours; the distribution of calories in meals was irrational, especially among older students, due to the increase in calorie intake in the afternoon.

Conclusion. Home diet of urban children of preschool and school age on weekends did not comply with well-known principles and was associated with an irrational food set.

Micronutrients in nutrition

Magnesium and vitamin B2 status of children with bronchial asthma and obesity

Annotation

Insufficiency or deficiency of some micronutrients may be additional modifying factors that influence the pathogenesis of the disease and the effectiveness of standard pharmacotherapy.

The aim of the study - to evaluate the level of magnesium and vitamin B2 in blood serum of patients with bronchial asthma and obesity in order to develop methods for individual correction of deficiency.

Material and methods. The study included 51 children aged 12-17 years. The first group included 23 patients (12 girls and 11 boys) with asthma with comorbidities (obesity), and the second group consisted of 28 children (10 girls and 18 boys) with obesity. The concentration of magnesium in blood serum was determined by a colorimetric method without deproteinization, and vitamin B2 - by an immunological microbiological method.

Results and discussion. When analyzing the concentration of magnesium in blood serum of the examined children, it was found that in patients with bronchial asthma and obesity, a reduced content of this mineral was observed in 15 (65.2%) patients. The average magnesium concentration was 0.66±0.02 mmol/l at a rate of 0.7-1.2 mmol/l. A statistically significant decrease in the magnesium level in children suffering from asthma and obesity was noted, compared with the level in children with obesity (0.66 [0.57; 0.73] vs 0.71 [0.67; 0.73] mmol/l, р<0.05). Low serum magnesium levels in obese patients were detected more rarely (р<0.05) - only in 6 (21.4%) children, mostly in patients with grade III obesity. The remaining 22 (78.6%) children had magnesium level within the normal range. Patients with low serum magnesium levels showed increased irritability, sleep disturbance, loss of memory and concentration. Vitamin B2 levels in all examined children were within the normal range (137-370 ng/ml).

Conclusion. The results indicate a decrease in the concentration of magnesium and normal levels of vitamin B2 in serum in patients with bronchial asthma and obesity. Low serum magnesium levels were observed in children with low bronchial asthma control. To increase the effectiveness of therapy and control the symptoms of bronchial asthma, especially when combined with obesity, correction of the accompanying magnesium deficiency is necessary.

Chemical composition of foodstuffs

Antioxidant potential of wild rose

Annotation

The presence in the hips of a complex of biologically active substances causes an antioxidant effect.

The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant activity of varietal rosehip of the Scientific Research Institute «Zhigulevskiye Sady» collection, which was cultivated in Samara region in the season 2016.

Material and methods. Antioxidant activity was analysed (antiradical activity, restoring force by FRAP method (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power), antioxidant activity in the system of linoleic acid), the content of total phenols and total flavonoids was determined. Along with this, vitamin C content, the total content of organic acids, reducing sugars, soluble substances were determined.

Results and discussion. The results of this research indicated high biological activity of the rosehip test samples. Thus, the maximum content of total phenols was found in the following varieties: Samarskiy Yubileyniy (966 mg of gallic acid/100g of feedstock), Samarskiy (922 mg/100g), Desertniy (858 mg/100 g), Krupnoplodniy VNIVI (723 mg/ 100 g). High content of total flavonoids was determined in Desertnyi variety (442 mg of catechin/100g of feedstock) and Rosa spinosissima L. variety (418 mg/100 g). Anthocyan presence was observed only in Rosa spinosissima L. (90.86 mg cyanidin-3-glycoside/100g of feedstock), as evidenced by its deep purple color. Desertnyi variety showed the highest indicator of antiradical activity (IC50=2.7 mg/сш?) and restoring force (18.18 mol Fe2+/1 kg of feedstock). The ability to inhibit the oxidation of linoleic acid was demonstrated by all the given samples. For the rosehip the content of vitamin C (leading variety: Rosa mollis Sm. - 67.3 mg%, Krupnoplodniy VNIVI - 47.3 mg%), acidity (leading variety: Yubileyniy - 1.39%), mass fraction of reducing sugars (leading variety: Samarskiy - 9.9%), the content of soluble substances (leading variety: Desertniy -22.2%) were determined.

Conclusion. Hence, the given varieties of rosehip have a high antioxidant activity. According to this, it can be recommended for mass cultivation on the territory of Samara region.

Analysis of amino acid composition of skim milk and buttermilk for the production of dairy drink when introducing whey protein hydrolysate

Annotation

The imbalance of macronutrient composition of people’s diets determines the relevance of the functional foods development - sources of protein and essential amino acids.

The aim of the work was to analyze the amino acid composition and determine the functional significance of the product based on skim milk and buttermilk byadding whey protein hydrolysate.

Material and methods. The control options were samples of skimmed milk, buttermilk and their mixtures in a 1:1 ratio. From 1 to 3% of the whey protein hydrolysate with a degree of hydrolysis of about 60% of peptide bonds were added to the same milk base samplesin the experimental options. The amino acid composition was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography using a cation exchange analyzer and subsequent post-column derivatization with ninhydrin.

Results and discussion. The content of essential amino acids per 100 g of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) is 50.6-168.0% from the adequate level of their daily intake, while there are only 3.0-22.3 and 2.6-19.9% in skimmed milk and buttermilk, respectively. Despite the practically equal protein content in skimmed milk and buttermilk 3.36±0.02 and 3.09±0.01%, respectively, the absolute content of all essential amino acids in buttermilk is lower than in skimmed milk. This can be explained by differences in the qualitative composition of proteins in these types of dairy raw materials.

Conclusion. The amino acid composition of the milk base, consisting of buttermilk and skimmed milk mixture in a 1:1 ratio, can be presented as «functional» product in relation to Val, He, Leu, Lis, Trp and Tyr, due to the addition of 3% WPH, because the product portion of 200 g provides 15% of adequate daily intake of these essential amino acids. There is the reason to include additional information: low-fat, low-calorie, contains only natural sugars and a source of protein for people whose protein requirement does not exceed 99 grams per day in the labeling of the developed product, in addition to its nutritional and energy value.


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