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Physiology and biochemistry nutrition

Effect of quercetin on the expression of the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism genes in the liver of rats with genetic and alimentary obesity

Annotation

Quercetin (Q; 3,3’,4’,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is considered as a promising component of specialized products for the correction of metabolic disorders in obesity and metabolic syndrome. At the same time, the results of evaluating the clinical efficacy of Q are ambiguous, and the mechanisms of its influence on lipid and carbohydrate-energy metabolism are not well understood.

The aim of the work was to study the effect of quercetin (Q 3,3’,4’,5,7-pentahydroxyfla-vone) on the expression of key glycolysis and lipogenesis enzymes’ genes in Zucker-Leprfa (Z) rats characterized by hereditary obesity, compared to «wild-type» Wistar (W) rats.

Material and methods. 24 male Z rats and 32 male W rats aged 8-10 weeks were used. Animals of each line were divided into 4 groups of equal numbers. For 62 days the animals of the first groups (controls) received a balanced diet according to AIN93M, the seconds -the same diet with Q added in a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Animals of the third groups received a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet (HFCD) with fat 30% by weight and with the replacement of drinking water with a 20% solution of fructose, the fourths groups - the same diet and supplementation with Q. After removing animals from the experiment, expression levels of liver carbohydrate and lipid metabolism genes Khk, Gck, Pklr, Acaca, Fasn, Scd, Srebfl, Mlxipl, Ppara and Pparg were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with reverse transcription using Actb and Gapdh as reference genes. The levels of triglycerides, total and HDL cholesterol, lipolytic activity and immu-noreactive leptin were determined in plasma.

Results and discussion. When comparing two animal lines, a significantly higher level of expression of Ppara, Pparg, Mlxipl, Acaca, Fasn, Scd was shown in Z rats compared to W rats, which is consistent with the development of dyslipidemia in the first ones and elevated levels of leptin under both types of diets used. The addition of Q caused in W rats a decrease in the expression of Scd, Mlxipl, Khk and Gck, more pronounced on the background of HFCD whereas in Z rats there were no similar effects, or they had the opposite direction. In addition, in Z rats, consumption of Q led to increased expression of Pklr, which was not observed in W rats.

Conclusion. The modulating effect of Q on the expression of key genes of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism enzymes significantly differs in wild-type W rats and mutant Z rats with hereditary obesity, and this difference appears to be potentiated by the consumption of excess fat and fructose.

Influence of coagulated egg melange on the physical endurance of growing male Wistar rats: physiological and biochemical assessment

Annotation

Melange, is one of the most commonly used products of egg processing, however, its use for the production offunctional foods is limited by its liquid consistency. The range of functional foods, including those that increase physical endurance and working ability, can be expanded by using the coagulated form of the melange. Thus, the preclinical testing of the nutritional value of coagulated melange and the effect of its consumption on the physical endurance of laboratory animals is relevant.

The aim of this research was the experimental comparative physiological and biochemical in vivo evaluation of the effects of coagulated melange consumption by Wistar male rats on their growth indices and physical endurance.

Material and methods. Samples of the lyophilized egg melange (EM) and coagulated egg melange (CEM) were used as objects of the research The experiment was conducted with the use of 45 growing male Wistar rats with initial body weight 80±5 g. According to the preliminary training results, 27 animals were selected for further experiment. The motor function was evaluated by means of grip test. The rats were randomized into 2 experimental groups according to their weight and grip strength. Animals were treated for 32 days with isocaloric and isonitrogenic semi-synthetic diets with EM and CEM as protein component (25% of the dry weight), consequently. The grip test was conducted once per week, two days a week animals were trained on the treadmill for 10 min. On the 31st day of the experiment, animals were exposed to exhaustive training till total exhaustion. On the 32nd day of experiment animals were decapitated under light ether anesthesia. The concentration of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol (CHL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) was determined in the blood serum.

Results and discussion. The greater consumption of food (20±1 g/rat/day) containing CEM by animals corresponded to a greater increase (204±9%) of their body weight over the entire experiment period compared with animals that received EM (13±1 g/rat/day; 160±9%, respectively, p<0.05). An increase in the intake of food containing CEM had a pronounced positive effect on the physical endurance of the animals, assessed in the grip test. For the 21 days of the experiment, this indicator increased by 26% in rats consuming EM, whereas in rats consuming CEM, the grip strength increased more significantly - by 42%. Consumption of CEM by animals increased the run time (33.8±1.4 min) and the distance covered (557±35 m) in the treadmill test before the exhaustion in comparison with similar indicators for animals that received EM (24.8±2.5 min and 365±50 m, respectively, p<0.05). The obtained results indicate an increased resistance of animals treated with CEM to exhausting physical loads.

Conclusion. The consumption of CEM by growing Wistar male rats increased more effectively their growth and physical endurance in comparison with animals treated with non-coagulated egg melange. These results show the prospective of the use of CEM as a functional food ingredient in specialized foods, enhancing physical endurance and working ability.

In vivo study of plant protein products from soybeans and non-alkaloid lupine Dega variety

Annotation

Research on finding additional sources of vegetable protein as an alternative to soy has shown a great prospect of using lupine. The study of biological effects of flour of nonalkaloid lupine Dega variety will assess the future prospects for its use in food industry.

The aim - a comparative study of protein products - soybean flour and non-alkaloid lupine flour (Dega-1 variety), added to laboratory rats’ diet.

Material and methods. Experiment was carried out on three groups of Wistar rats (n=30, 210±5g) for28 days: 1stgroup — rats that consumed the standard vivarium diet (control); 2nd group and 3rd group - animals, that consumed standard diet with addition of lupine flour (protein content - 42.1%) and soy flour (protein content - 50.2%), replacing 26 and 23% protein in standard diet, respectively.

Results. As a result of the experiment, fluctuations in body weight of rats in 2nd group and 3rd group were observed from the 11th day; the weight gain of rats in 1st group was 7.74%, 2nd group and 3rd group - 3.32 and 2.04%. Noted changes could be explained by food adaptation of organism to the main nutrients of protein products. The blood test showed minor changes in the hematological and biochemical parameters within physiological reference values. Consumption of lupine flour led to a slight increase of leukocytes (by 14.2%) and lymphocytes (by 24.5%), an increase in the activity of certain enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase by 18.4%, alanine aminotransferase by 26.2% and lactate dehydrogenase by 21.6%, p>0.05), while alkaline phosphatase activity decreased (14.4%, p<0.05) in comparison with control. Incorporation of soy flour into the diet of rats showed a statistically significant increase in the concentration of monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and immature cells (by 57.1% in comparison with 1st group and 83.3% in comparison with 2nd group), while relative content of granulocytes reduced (by 15.1% relative to the control).

Conclusion. The inclusion of plant proteins into the rat’s diet did not cause significant deviations in physiological (motor activity), biochemical, hematological parameters in experimental animals. However, the identified features in animals of the experimental groups, possibly related to biologically active substances and anti-alimentary factors in soybean and lupine, indicate the need to improve technological approaches to lupine protein products production in order to improve functional characteristics and completely remove substances that deteriorate nutrients absorption. A possible solution is lupine proteins’ proteolysis, the use of various methods of fractionation, isolation and purification in combination with pretreatment to obtain protein concentrates or isolates with improved nutritional, technological and functional properties.

Effect of essential lipophilic nutrients on free radical processes in liver mitochondrial fraction of the tumor-bearing rats

Annotation

Oxidative stress is a universal mechanism of cellular damage of hepatocytes, leading to a decrease in the detoxification function of the liver, which is especially important during oncogenesis. An early correction of these mechanisms by lipophilic essential nutrients could increase the effectiveness of antitumor treatment and prevent the development and progress of cancer.

Aim to study the effect of separate and combined use of ω-3 PUFA and vitamin D3 on the intensity offree radical processes, mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c content in the liver mitochondrial fraction of the tumor-bearing rats during the intensive growth of the tumor has been studied.

Material and methods. Studies were carried out on white outbred female rats weighing 130-150g, which were divided into 5groups (each n=12). Guerin’s carcinoma was used as a model of malignant neoplasm. Carcinoma transplantation was carried out by subcutaneous injection of 0.5 ml of a 30% suspension of cancer cells into saline in the upper thigh region of the right limb. ω-3 PUFAs (120 mg/kg of body weight, per os) and vitamin D3 (600 IU/kg of body weight, per os) were pre-administered for 28 days before the transplantation of Guerin’s carcinoma and after transplantation for the entire period of tumor growth in the body (14 days). Liver mitochondrial fraction was isolated by differential centrifugation. The intensity of lipid peroxidation was judged by using spectrophotometry by the content of primary, secondary, and tertiary products in isopropanol extracts. The rate of formation of the superoxide radical was recorded in a test with nitro-blue tet-razolium, the swelling of mitochondria was assessed by a decrease in the optical density of isolated mitochondria, the content of cytochrome c in the mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions was determined by multi-wavelength visible light spectroscopy.

Results and discussion. An increase in the content of primary (diene and triene conjugates), secondary (ketodienes; conjugated trienes; TBA-active products) and terminal (Schiff bases) lipid peroxidation products with a simultaneous increase in the generation of superoxide anion-radical was found in the liver mitochondrial fraction of the tumorbearing rats. With the administration of ω-3 PUFA and vitamin D3, both separately and especially when used together, a decrease in the intensity of free radical processes in liver mitochondrial fraction of tumor-bearing rats has been observed. At the same time, mitochondrial swelling decreased, this prevented the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol.

Conclusion. The administration of the complex ω-3 PUFA and vitamin D3 reduces the processes of lipid peroxidation in the mitochondrial fraction of the liver of tumor-bearing rats while simultaneously restoring the functional ability of mitochondria.

Nutrition of sportsmеn

Immunomodulating effects of using L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 in the nutrition of junior athletes

Annotation

Nowdays, much attention is paid to the study of disorders of immune regulation and methods of effective immune correction in athletes. In this regard, the use of specialized sport foods (SSF), containing nutrients with immunomodulatory properties, is of particular relevance in youth sports.

The aim of the work is to study the immunomodulating activity of L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 in junior athletes during the training period.

Material and methods. The object of the study were 30 junior athletes (masters of sports and candidates for masters of sports in swimming) aged 14-18 years, including 9 girls and 21 boys. Athletes were divided into 3 groups of 10 people each. Athletes of the 1st and 2nd main groups received L-carnitine (600 mg per day) and coenzyme Q10 (60 mg/day), respectively, for 4 weeks in addition to the basic diet. The dosage of SSF used in the study was 200% of the adequate level of consumption and did not exceed the upper permissible level of consumption. Athletes of the 3rd group (control) received only basic diet without sports’ nutrition. Examination of athletes of all groups was performed at the beginning and after 4 weeks of the observation period.

Results and discussion. As a result of a comprehensive survey of junior athletes, the positive effect of L-carnitine intake on erythrocyte hemoglobin content (30.2±0.4 vs 28.3±0.3 pg at the beginning) was observed. The relative content of basophilic leukocytes in athletes of the main groups statistically significantly decreased by the end of the observation period: in the L-carnitine group, from 0.64±0.05 to 0.45±0.04%, in the coenzyme Q10 group, from 0.66±0.07 to 0.50±0.04%, which indicated an increase in the body’s resistance to allergic reactions.

Conclusion. The biomarkers of the immunotropic effect of L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 are a decrease in the expression of the apoptotic marker CD95/Fas on peripheral blood lymphocytes and suppression of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines synthesized by Th1-lymphocytes with switching the response to humoral immunity. An evidence base for the effectiveness of the use of L-carnitine and coenzyme Q10 in sports nutrition for restoring immune dysfunction and adaptive potential of junior athletes has been provided.

An analysis of the diet of members of the Russian national men’s water polo team during the sports training camps

Annotation

Increasing the adaptive capacity of professional athletes depends on proper nutrition, especially in training and competitions’ period. In this regard, it is relevant to study the actual nutrition and assess its compliance with the energy expenditure of athletes.

The aim - to study the actual nutrition and energy expenditure of athletes from male water polo national team of the Russian Federation in the competitive period.

Material and methods. In March 2018, 15 highly skilled sportsmen-men engaged in water polo were examined; qualification - 11 masters of sports, 4 candidates for the master of sports; Slavic ethnos. The average age was 23.1±0.6 years. The actual nutrition was studied by a 24-hour food record method and by the frequency method. The anthropometric examination was carried out according to a unified method using standard medical scales, a medical height meter and a rubberized measuring tape. Measurement of energy expenditure and heart rate at rest and under load was performed on a bicycle ergometer using an wireless ergospirometer and a chest pulse meter.

Results and discussion. The determination of daily energy expenditure in athletes of the men’s Russian national water polo team showed that the average value was 4350±129 kcal. А peculiar feature of the diet of water polo players is its high caloric value (5165±539 kcal/day), caused by energy expenditure during physical exertion and additional thermogenesis in conditions of long training in water. Excessive (1.5 times in comparison with the recommended values) consumption of fats, including saturated fatty acids by 1.3 times, added sugar and added salt is a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, diseases of digestive organs, endocrine system, including type 2 diabetes. Low values of consumption of vegetables and fruits, dairy products, fish products and high levels of sugar and confectionery have been established.

Conclusions. The imbalance of diets on two basic nutrients (fats, carbohydrates) has been revealed. The data obtained were the basis for the formation of individual recommendations on nutrition for each athlete, taking into account athletes’ metabolic parameters and the level of physical activity. It is necessary to continue studies of anthropometric indices in dynamics for the most adequate assessment of the compliance of actual nutrition with energy consumption, and further correction of the diet in order to improve athletes’ performance.

Micronutrients in nutrition

Problem of mineral insufficiency at chronic pancreatitis in dependence on age

Annotation

The high incidence of chronic pancreatitis (CP) which arise at young people of working age, the development of serious complications are pushing for the development of new diagnostic methods and the search for effective ways to treat this disease. In this regard, a relevant and promising direction is the further study of the mechanisms of pathogenesis and the formation of trophological (including mineral) deficiency in CP, followed by the development of comprehensive programs for their correction.

Aim is to study mineral status of patients with chronic pancreatitis, depending on their age.

Material and methods. A sample of 218 patients (140 women, 78 men) with CP with exocrine insufficiency aged 18 to 72 years was examined. The control group consisted of 20 healthy individuals who underwent a planned outpatient examination. To assess the mineral status, macronutrients were determined photometrically, iron by the batho-phenanthroline method, the remaining trace elements (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in blood serum.

Results and discussion. Patients with CP at all age groups revealed a statistically significant (p<0.001) decrease in serum concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, copper, zinc, and iron compared to the level in healthy individuals, which increased with age. In the group of patients older than 60 years, the state of hypominerale-mia was detected by the level of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, copper, zinc, iron, which required correction of the mineral status. With increasing age of patients with CP, the content of toxic metals (lead and cadmium) increased compared with that in the group of healthy individuals.

Сonclusions. The findings suggest that the age of patients with CP is a predictor of mineral deficiency and the accumulation of toxic elements, which must be considered when forming a complex treatment.

Chemical composition of foodstuffs

Nutrient value of fruit in promising strawberry varieties

Annotation

One of the current areas in research of fruit and berry crops is the study of their nutritional value and micronutrient composition. Valuable chemical composition of the strawberry determines a wide spectrum of its utilization not only as fresh fruit, but also as a raw material for food industry. Breeding requirements for contemporary strawberry varieties together with yield, large-fruit, important taste and dietary qualities of fruit provide for higher content of biologic active substances.

The aim of the research was an integrated assessment of strawberry fruit for content of nutrients and bioactive compounds, as well as mineral elements, and its antioxidant activity.

Material and methods. The objects of investigation were berries of 5 strawberry varieties bred in the I.V. Michurin Scientific Centre (Lakomaya, Prazdnichnaya, Privlekatelnaya, Urozhaynaya CGL, Feyerverk) and 9 foreign varieties (Vima Zanta, Dukat, Zefir, Kama, Maryshka, Red Gauntlet, Festivalnaya romashka, Honey, Elsanta) which are promising for cultivation in the Black Soil Region of Russia. The content of soluble solids was determined by the refractometric method, sugars - by Bertrand’s method, pectins - by the volumetric method, anthocyanins - by pH-differential spectrophotometry. Total content of antioxidants was defined by amperometric method with recalculation per quercetin. Determination of vitamin B1 was carried out using the fluorometric thiochrome method, vitamin B2 - by fluorometric titration with riboflavin-binding apoprotein after acid-enzymatic hydrolysis, ascorbic acid, vitamin E (tocopherols), niacin, organic and hydroxy cinnamic acids - by HPLC, flavonols - spectrophotometrically, minerals and trace elements - by atomic absorption method.

Results and discussion. A significant variation in the chemical composition indices depending on the varietal characteristics was found. Strawberry fruit accumulated 8.5-12.0% soluble solids, 5.9-8.7% sugars, 1.5-2.1% of fibre, 0.78-1.12% pectin substances, 0.89-1.45% organic acid; 100 g contain 33.5-48.2 mg vitamin C, 18.3-108.5 mg anthocyanins, 0.024- 0.041 mg vitamin B1, 0.012-0.029 mg vitamin B2, 0.10-0.26 mg niacin, 0.26-0.60 mg TE vitamin E, 102-270 mg potassium, 0.15-0.95 mg iron; total antioxidant activity ranged within 180.8-350.0 mg/100 g. High level of anthocyan accumulation (over 80.0 mg/100g) was observed in Privlekatelnaya, Lakomaya and Feyerverk strawberry varieties. Urozhaynaya CGL, Privlekatelnaya and Lakomaya varieties were characterized by dessert taste. According to the results of the studies Privlekatelnaya variety stood out because of the high complex accumulation of vitamin C, anthocyanins, and high total antioxidant activity. These varieties are recommended for both fresh use and for freezing, as well as for production of functional foods.

Conclusion. The obtained data are of interest for further inclusion in the Tables of the chemical composition of Russian food products.

Pineapple juice nutritional profile

Annotation

Knowledge about food composition is necessary both for specialists to assess the state of nutrition of the population and develop recommendations on nutrition, as well as for consumers to organize healthy individual nutrition. Russian Union of Juice Producers together with research organizations is working to systematize and expand knowledge about the composition of juices, as one of the important elements in the structure of human nutrition.

Aim is to establish the nutrient profile of pineapple juice.

Material and methods. Data analysis of reference books and scientific publications, conducting physic-chemical studies of industrially produced pineapple juice.

Results and discussion. The nutrient profile shows the content of more than 30 nutritive and bioactive compounds in pineapple juice. Sugars in pineapple juice are represented by glucose, fructose and sucrose in an average ratio of 1:1:1.6, organic acids are mainly citric and L-malic acids, while the content of citric acid is 2-4 times higher than that of L-malic. A portion of industrially produced pineapple juice on average contains 10% of the daily human requirement for potassium and magnesium, about 15% for copper, 60-70% for vitamin C. The content of vitamin B1 and folate is about 7% of daily recommended level, vitamin B6 - about 12%. Pineapple juice is a source of manganese -a portion contains more than 100% of the adequate level of daily consumption of this trace element. Polyphenolic compounds are mainly represented by hydroxycinnamic acids, among which synaptic acid and its derivatives and p-coumaroyl chinic acid predominate (45-80% of all hydroxycinnamic acids in total). The content of hydroxycinnamic acids per serving averages 30% of the adequate level of their daily intake. Pineapple juice shows proteolytic activity (about 1 pe per 1 g of dry matter), which is associated with the content of the complex of proteolytic enzymes in pineapples.

Conclusion. The most significant from the point of view of providing a human body with micronutrients and minor bioactive compounds for pineapple juice are manganese, vitamin C, hydroxycinnamic acids, copper, potassium, magnesium, and B vitamins (B1, B6, folates).

Investigation of the chemical composition of fruit and berry raw materials of the Far Eastern Region as a perspective source of nutrients and bioactive compounds

Annotation

The Far Eastern region is rich in fruit and berry raw materials with a high content of bioactive substances.

The aim of the work is to study the chemical composition of wild berries of the Amur region of the Far Eastern region.

Material and methods. The objects of the research were the berries of Sargent viburnum (Viburnum sargentii Koechne), Chinese Schisandra [Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill], and Amursky grapes (Vitis amurensis Rupr) harvested from 2011 to 2016. The content of organic acids and tannins was determined by titration, anthocyanins -spectrophotometrically, polyphenolic substances and в-carotene - photoelectrocolo rimetrically, vitamins B1, B2 - fluorometrically, vitamins B6 and E - by HPLC, hydroxycinnamine acids - by direct spectrophotometry.

Results and discussion. The maximum amount of polyphenolic substances and vitamin C was found in V. sargentii berries, the average value of which was 1.01±0.04% and 85.2±2.4 mg/100 g, respectively. A high content of potassium was found in V. amurensis (an average of 188.5±2.2 mg/100 g) and V. sargentii (176.6±1.2 mg/100 g). The highest content of vitamins B1, B2, B6 was found in the berries of V. amurensis, the average content of which was, respectively, 0.071±0.002 mg/100 g, 0.065±0.002 mg/100 g and 0.081±0.004 mg/100 g. It was also found that in V. sargentii berries the level of all minerals and trace elements was the highest: calcium content in 100 g of berries was 41.4±0.8 mg, magnesium - 17.3±0.4 mg, phosphorus - 227.7±4.6 mg, manganese - 0.69±0.08 mg, iron - 0.60±0.08 mg, zinc - 0.90±0.08 mg. When consumed 100 g of V. sargentii berries, practically fully satisfies the need of an adult in vitamin C, in phosphorus and manganese - by about a quarter; in potassium, iron, and zinc, by 4-8%. 100 g of Sch. chinensis contains about 50% of the recommended daily intake of vitamin C, and 100 g of V. amurensis - about 10% of vitamin C and в-carotene, 7% of potassium, about 4% of group B vitamins. The studied berries can serve as a source of hydroxycinnamic acids and pectins.

Conclusion. Studies of the chemical composition of the berries V. sargentii, Sch. chinensis, V. amurensis harvested in 2011-2016 indicates a wide range of bioactive compounds, the proportion of each of which varies.

Diet treatment

Long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of diseases in adults and children: a view of the clinical pharmacologist

Annotation

Adequate and balanced intake of ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 LCPUFA) is important throughout life, and directly affects health status: frompreconception and pregnancy to the prevention of various diseases. Russia geographically belongs to regions with a low level of consumption of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. In addition, gender characteristics and genetic polymorphisms underlie the variability of the synthesis of ω-3 LCPUFA in the human organism from alpha-linolenic acid. ω-3 LCPUFA play one of the key roles in the human organism: they regulate lipid metabolism, have a positive effect on cognitive functions, have anti-inflammatory activity, and contribute to the prolongation of pregnancy. ω-3 LCPUFA should be ingested in sufficient quantities, since they are essential nutrients, be in the form of release, provide high compliance for admission and be balanced in content of EPA and DHA.

Prophylactic nutrition

The development and investigation of nutritive and biological value and consumer properties of the fermented dairy product with flour free from glute

Annotation

The development of fermented dairy products with complex raw material composition, in particular, including cereal components, but not containing gluten, that most fully meet the criteria for a healthy diet, is actual.

The aim - the development of a new multi-component fermented dairy product with flour free from gluten.

Material and methods. Milk and fine flour mixture for baby foods (buckwheat, rice, corn and their composition); DVS starter for fermented dairy products were used as the basic raw material components. Active and titratable acidity, mass fraction of protein, fat, microbiological indexes have been measured as well as the block of organoleptic tests has been used. Besides this, amino acids’ amount as well as fat acid composition and gluten level (using PCR) have been determined.

Results and discussion. A set of requirements to the product has been developed, the studies have been conducted, which made it possible to determine the dosage of the flour mixture of three selected species The total mass fraction of flour in the fermented dairy product with flour didn’t exceed 5%.The variation makes it possible to create an assortment of a product with different content of flour and different composition of flour constituent. The typological selection of the starter cultures has been carried out in order to obtain samples with the required organoleptic, particularly, viscous characteristics. The product possessed the typical fermented pleasant taste, odor and aroma with the tone of flour used, and viscous-flow consistency. The starter based on Staphylococcus thermophiles and Lactobacillus bulgaricus has been chosen. The titre of lactic microflora in all samples of the product exceeded the lowest required for fermented dairy products and composed no less 6x107 CFU/cm3. The determination of gluten content proved its absence in all test samples that evidenced about the achievement of the assigned task. The analysis of amino acids composition of the product samples showed that proteins contained essential amino acids from 160 to 210 g/100 g depending on the used flour combinations. It was determined that limiting amino acid of all test samples was isoleucine. The calculated coefficient of utility in the test samples was higher comparing to the fermented milk (control) by 9-12% that indicated an increase in the biological value of the developed product. The finished fermented dairy product with flour contained arachidonic (1.2%) and linoleic (3.0%) acids which relate to ω-6 PUFA in small amounts.

Conclusion. The proposed methodological approach to the development of multi-component products consisted in the fact that it was considered as a bio-system, each ingredient of which contributed to its desired set of properties. Using the mentioned approach, strategically, it is possible to combine the components of animal (milk) and vegetable (flour of cereals and groat cultures) origin into the whole food biosystem with the target spectrum of useful properties.


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