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Physiology and biochemistry nutrition

Effects of quercetin on protective capacity in rats fed a high-fructose diet

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The purpose of the study was to determine effects of quercetin on protective capacity parameters in the experiment on rats fed a high fructose diet. Rats of the control group received a semi-synthetic (s/s) diet and water; animals from the 1st experimental group -s/s diet and 20% fructose solution instead of drinking water; rats of the 2nd experimental group- s/s diet with quercetin (0.1% indiet) and 20% fructose solution instead of drinking water for 20 weeks. Parameters of antioxidant status [total antioxidant activity (AOA), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipids hydroperoxides, the level of reduced and oxidized glutathione, activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, paraoxonase-1, hemeoxygenase-1, NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase], the activity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes [CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP3A, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-GT) and glutathione transferase] were studied in plasma and liver of rats. Consumption of the high-fructose diet led to changes in some parameters: diminution of AOA in blood plasma, decrease of AOA and MDA level, unsedimentable activity of lysosomal enzymes, increase of the UDP-GT activity in liver. The inclusion of quercetin in the diet did not affect the studied parameters, except for a more pronounced decrease of the unsedimentable activity of lysosomal enzymes in rat liver. The results of the study indicated that there was no significant effect of quercetin on the protective capacity of rats at the initial stage of obesity caused by high-fructose diet.

Redox status parameters in adolescent-mongoloids with exogenously constitutional obesity and fatty hepatosis

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It is assumed that in the progression of obesity, complicated by fatty hepatosis in ado­lescents, a significant role is given to the reactions of oxidative stress with deficiency of antioxidant factors. However, an important factor that remains outside the field of view of researchers is the ethnicity of the patient, which is an important element in the development of a personalized approach in the treatment and prevention of diseases. In connection with this, the purpose of this study was to study the changes in the lipid peroxidation-antioxidant defense processes in adolescent Mongoloids with exogenously constitutional obesity complicated by fatty hepatosis. 18 adolescent boys with fatty hepatosis were examined on the background of exogenous-constitutional obesity of the first degree; 38 adolescent boys with exogenously constitutional obesity without changes in the liver and 37 practically healthy adolescents (control group). All subjects surveyed for ethnicity belonged to the Mongoloids. Spectrophotometric and fluorometric methods were used in the research. The results of the study indicated a high intensity of lipid peroxidation reactions in Mongoloid boys with obesity and fatty hepatosis relative to control values: an increase in blood plasma content of compounds with unsaturated double bonds (p<0.001), diene conjugates (p=0.0012), ketodienes and conjugated trienes (p<0.0001), in the absence of significant differences in the level of TBA-active products. Increased values of total antioxidant activity in blood plasma (p=0.0023) and erythrocyte super­oxide dismutase activity (p=0.0072), decreased levels of fat-soluble vitamins in blood plasma -tocopherol (p<0.0001) and retinol (p=0.0011)] and oxidized form of gluta­thione in erythrocytes (p=0.0083) have been found. The pronounced insufficiency of fat-soluble vitamins - α-tocopherol and retinol in patients of the main group was also noted in comparison with patients without morphological changes in the liver. Thus, in teenage Mongoloids with exogenously constitutional obesity and fatty hepatosis, it is possible to recommend antioxidant drugs in addition to basic metabolic therapy.

Hygiene of nutrition

Study of lutein and zeaxanthin content in the diet with the assessment of the relationship between the level of alimentary intake of non-vitamin carotenoids and the density of the macular region of the retina at a young age

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Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoid pigments that affect the function of the visual analyzer. They selectively accumulate in the yellow spot of the retina, form macular pigment and determine the density of the retina macula. Lutein and zeaxanthin slow down the progression of age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of senior-age blindness. The main food sources of non-vitamin carotenoids are green leafy vegetables, zucchini, pumpkin, green peas, broccoli. The aim of the study is a retrospective assessment of the levels and sources of alimentary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin in young people and research of the effect of lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet on macula density. A specially designed questionnaire was used to quantify the content of lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet, reflecting the amount of consumption of the main sources of these carotenoids on the day preceding the survey. A non-invasive non-contact method of optical coherence tomography of the retina was used to determine the density of the macula. The study involved 96 students of Sechenov University at the age of 21-27 years. The study found that only 6.25% of the respondents had daily intake of lutein and zeaxanthin of 6 mg or more, 8.33% had 4.6-5.9 mg, 8.33% had 3.0-4.5 mg, in 18.75% - 1.5-2.9 mg, in 45.83% <1.4 mg. 12.5% of respondents didn't include sources of lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet. The more common sources of lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet were eggs and fresh tomatoes. Retinal density indices corresponded to the age standards in the majority of the examined. In 8.3% surveyed the thickness of the retina was decreased, and 4.2% had higher thickness of the retina in comparison with the standards. Significant differences in the Central subfield thickness in men and women were revealed. There was no dependence of the levels of lutein and zeaxanthin coming from food sources on the retina thickness indicators.

The role of food in prevention and correction of iodine deficiency in the endemic territory

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Iodine supply remains the global problem due to the wide prevalence and a wide range of clinical manifestations in all age groups of population. However, iodine deficiency is a nutritional deficiency and the solution of this problem lies in the organization of rational nutrition of the population.

Aim - the purpose of this study was to examine the food features of the population of the mild iodine-deficient region from the standpoint of adequacy of iodine sufficiency.

Material and methods. The analysis of nutrition of the population of Tyumen Region in 2005 and 2016 was carried out according to official statistics of Tyumenstat; results of sanitary-hygienic and biomedical monitoring for the period from 1994 to 2016. A sociological study was conducted on a representative nested sample using the questionnaire method. The study involved schoolchildren (n=744) and their parents (n=677), students and full-time students (n=623). Probabilistic was sampling and nesting. Statistical sampling error does not exceed 4%.

Results. Analysis of the level of food consumption by residents of the Tyumen region over the period from 2005 to 2016 showed an increase in consumption per capita of fish and fish products (from 23.8 kg in 2005 to 33.1 kg in 2016 at recommended level of 22 kg). At the same time, a sociological study showed that only 1-4% of the population consumed iodine-rich products daily and only 53% of respondents regularly used iodized salt. The analysis of the results of biomedical monitoring over the 20-year period of the existence of preventive programs in the Tyumen region showed significant improvements in the situation in the region: median of ioduria increased significantly from 77 to 125 Mg/l and the incidence of goiter in pre-pubertal children decreased from 85% in 1994 to 6.8% in 2016 (р=0,001); the incidence of neonatal hyperthyrotropinemia significantly decreased from 44.3% in 1994 to 3.9% in 2017 (р=0,001). However, most indicators did not reach the target values recommended for iodine-rich region, which indicated the insufficient effectiveness of the existing voluntary prevention system. The solution of this problem is using of iodine-enriched foods of mass consumption, such as bread and bakery products.

Nutritional assessment of adult population of the Republic of Bashkortostan

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The study of actual nutrition of Bashkortostan adult population using hygienic and statistical methods has been carried out. Based on the data on the nature and quantity of food consumed, the tables of the chemical composition of Russian food products and the results of own findings, nutritional and energy value of the average food set have been calculated. According to the data of the Federal State Statistics Service and the questionnaire survey of 1328 people (821 women and 507 men aged 25-60 years 1-3 groups of physical activity living in urban and rural areas), the consumption structure of basic food products (meat, eggs, potatoes, vegetable oil, sugar, bread) has been shown to be similar on the average in Russia and in the Republic of Bashkortostan, despite the presence of some specific peculiarities. People living in Bashkortostan consumed 30% more dairy products, while fish consumption was 2 fold lower, intake of fruits and vegetables reduced by 28%. When compared with rational norms, consumption of bread and sugar by Bashkortostan residents was 1.4 and 1.9 fold higher, vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood - was lower in 2.2,2.6 and 2.7 fold, respectively, which largely affects the chemical composition of the diet. The energy value of food consumed was composed of 45% of carbohydrates, 42% of fats, 13% of proteins and consisted on average of 2812±196 kcal per day among men, and 2229 ±136 kcal among women. The diet imbalance of basic foods lead to a deficiency in the diet of calcium (by 25%), magnesium (15%) and vitamin C (50%), B1 (30%), B2 (45%), A (28%). The creation of a permanent information and promotion system to educate the population about the basic principles of healthy eating, the prevention of alimentary-dependent diseases, an increase in the production of food products of mass consumption with reduced fat, sugar, salt, enriched with vitamins and minerals can be recommended as an urgent measure for improving nutrition of the Republican population.

Vitaminology

Content of some vitamins in food ration and blood serum of professional athletes

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The aim of the work was a comparative assessment of the vitamin status of athletes specializing in different kinds of sport (bobsleigh, dispersing and pilots, biathlon, bullet shooting) by means of assessment of the content of vitamins in the diet and blood serum. 159 professional athletes of both sexes were examined in the pre-competition period of the sport activity. The average age of the surveyed 92 men was 21.7±0.8 years, 67 women - 23.1±1.5 years. The actual data on the intake of some vitamins with the main and supplementary diet and blood serum have been presented. The basic diet of athletes didn't provide adequate intake of vitamins. The most pronounced deficiency of B vitamins and vitamin C in the basic diet was noted in female athletes specializing in bobsleigh. Only enrichment of the basic diet with specialized products for athletes and dietary supplements allowed sportsmen to increase their vitamin intake to the recommended level. At the same time, the intake of vitamins В1 and В2 with supplements in a number of athletes exceeded the upper permissible level of their consumption as a part of dietary supplements and specialized food products. The concentration of vitamins C and A in the blood serum exceeded the lower limit of the physiological norm in all athletes. At the same time, in 15.6 and 35.9% of the people, the concentration of these vitamins exceeded the upper limit of the norm. In 17.4% of the examined, a lack of vitamin E was identified, while an increased tocopherol concentration was found in 22.3% of athletes. Comparison of data on the vitamin consumption and their blood level made it possible to conclude that, in order to maintain the optimal vitamin status of the athlete's organism, it was inappropriate to use excessive doses of vitamins C (>200-300 mg/day), E (>50 mg TE/day) and A (>1500 μg RE/day). The unreasonableness of using in the diet of athletes excessively high doses of antioxidant vitamins, the increased demand for B vitamins and the appropriateness of correlating the need for B vitamins with the energy value of the diet have been discussed.

Prophylactic nutrition

Development of biotechnology of fermented milk product with Lactobacillus reuteri LR1 and the evaluation of its functional property in experiment in vitro and in vivo

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In this article the biotechnology of the dairy product based on the probiotic strain of Lactobacillus reuteri LR1 is presented. The following conditions of milk fermentation were screened: fermentation by monoculture of Lactobacillus reuteri LR1, fermentation by monoculture of Lactobacillus reuteri LR1 with addition of yeast extract as growth-promoting factor, and combined fermentation by Lactobacillus reuteri LR1, Lactobacillus helveticus NK1 and Streptococcus thermophilus (HTC). It had been demonstrated that after 8 hours of cultivation the number of Lactobacillus reuteri LR1 cells in the monoculture with introduced yeast extract was up to 5,9x108 CFU/cm3 whereas cell count for the monoculture without yeast extract introduction was 1,6x107 CFU/cm3. The optimized biotechnological parameters of the dairy product fermentation, which provided the required Lactobacillus reuteri LR1 cell count, were as follows: Lactobacillus reuteri LR1 starter dosage of 6%, HTC starter dosage of 3-4%, fermentation temperature of 37±1 °C, and fermentation duration of 6 hours. The developed product possessed an apparent antagonistic activity against test-cultures of such pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms as E. coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The survival of the test-cultures cultivated with the obtained dairy product on the first cultivation day was from 36 to 46% and on the second - from 8 to 20%, in comparison with the pure test-cultures. The investigation of the functional properties of the obtained dairy product was carried out by the single -factor experiment with the albino Wistar rat-stock (initial body weight 160±10 g, n=10 in each group). Its positive effect on the rats' microbiome composition and lipid exchange indices has been demonstrated. It had been shown that the administration of the obtained dairy product in the rats' diet (5 ml per day per os) during 30 days didn't cause any abnormalities in the health status and behavior of the laboratory animals of spf-category. The number and distribution of leucocytes and lymphocytes, and granulocytes in all rats' populations (intact, control and treatment) were within the normal range. Upon the introduction of the developed dairy product into the rats' diet, the increased levels of bifidobacteria, lactic acid bacteria and typical for normal rats' microflora enterobacteria were observed in the rats' microbiome. As for the biochemical indices that characterize rats' lipid metabolism, the rats consuming fermented dairy products (control and treatment) demonstrated statistically significant reduction of blood serum cholesterol level compared to the intact rat group; additionally the rats consuming the developed in this study dairy product (treatment) demonstrated statistically significant reduction of blood serum triglyceride level compared to the intact rats. Utilized in this study Lactobacillus reuteri LR1 is the first strain that was purified in Russia and characterized as useful for manufacturing of the probiotic food products, since currently only Lactobacillus reuteri strains of foreign origin can be seen on the market.

Diet treatment

Metabolic effects of egg white enzymatic hydrolyzates: prospects of use in persons with metabolic syndrome (short review)

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The metabolic syndrome (MS), which is characterized by significant prevalence, constant growth of patients' number and high rate of cardiovascular complications, is one of actual problems of modern medicine. A way for optimization of the dietary status of patients with MS is the use of specialized foods with optimized chemical composition in their complex treatment. These products allow to correct hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and antioxidant status disorders. The publications of the last decade show high interest of scientists to the problem of use of enzymatic hydrolysates of food proteins in dietary preventive products for people with metabolic disorders. High biological value of chicken egg protein and its enzymatic hydrolysates define the prospects of their use in specialized foods aimed at correction and/or prevention of MS clinical implications. The hydrolysis of chicken egg protein leads to the formation of biologically active peptides with antioxidant, hypotensive, anticoagulant and some other effects. As functional food ingredient, the enzymatic hydrolysate of chicken egg protein has some advantages over native protein - higher water solubility, digestibility and absorption in gastrointestinal tract. The results of preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies on evaluation of hypolipidemic effects of chicken egg protein and its enzymatic hydrolysates are discussed in this review. The analysis of the presented publications shows, that introduction of chicken egg protein and its enzymatic hydrolysates into the diet of animals with induced metabolic syndrome had hypolipidemic and antihypertensive effects. The main mechanisms of hypolipidemic action of protein hydrolysates and peptides in gastrointestinal tract are briefly discussed in this review. The prospects of the production of enzymatic hydrolysates of chicken egg protein with defined hypolipidemic properties for their inclusion into dietary products for prevention and treatment of MS are proved in the review.

S-methylmethionin (vitamin U): experimental studies and clinical perspective

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Vitamin-like compound S-methyl-L-methionine (SMM, historically called vitamin U) is a metabolic agent, affects metabolic processes, which causes a wide variety of effects. The data of the studies demonstrating gastroprotective effect, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effect, participation in regulation of adipocyte function, homocysteine exchange are presented. SMM is involved in all methylation reactions in which another activated form of methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, normally participates. The results of the observed studies indicate a possible expansion of the clinical use of S-methylmethionine.
Chemical composition of foodstuffs

Meat quality in broilers reared in different housing systems

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Meat quality was assessed in Cobb-500 cage vs. floor-housed broilers slaughtered at 38 vs 49 days of age. Broilers (105 birds per housing system) were reared since 1 day of age in conditions of vivarium of Center for Selection and Genetics «Zagorskoye EPH». Fat content in breast meat was significantly higher (p<0.05) at both slaughter ages in cage-housed broilers (2.0 and 2.7% at slaughter age 38 and 49 days, respec­tively) compared to floor-housed (1.6 and 2.2%). Protein content in breast meat was higher in floor-caged broilers. Total collagen content in thigh meat of floor housed broilers (789.88 mg/100 g) was 1.5 fold higher compared to cage-housed (515.80 mg/100 g, p<0.05). Fatty acid profiles of meat were mostly affected by the type of meat (red vs white) and to a lesser extent by housing system and slaughter age. Water-holding capac­ity in red meat significantly differed between slaughter ages and between housing systems at slaughter age 38 days (р<0.05): at slaughter age 38 days water-holding capacity in red meat was 67.3 in cage-housed broilers vs. 70.1% in floor-housed; at slaughter age 49 days 74.9 vs. 76.0%, respectively. The five-point scores of sensory taste evaluation for the meat of floor-housed broilers (4.55 and 4.91 for breast meat at slaughter ages 38 and 49 days; 4.40 and 4.90 for thigh meat) were better compared to cage-housed (4.47 and 4.83 for breast meat at slaughter ages 38 and 49 days; 4.37 and 4.70 for thigh meat). The conclusion was made that meat quality estimated by a set of the relevant parameters was marginally better in floor housed broilers in compare to cage-housed.

Grapefruit juice nutritional profile

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Based on the published data on the content of nutritive (NS) and biologically active substances (BAS) and the results of studies of various samples of domestic industrial grapefruit juice, the article presents the nutrient profile of grapefruit juice containing data about more than 30 NS and BAS. Grapefruit juice is one of the relatively low-calorie fruit juices - 100 ml of grapefruit juice contains an average of 39 kcal. Like other cit­rus juices, it is rich in organic acids, the main of which is citric acid (0.8-2 g/100 ml). Potassium, magnesium, vitamin C, as well as flavonoids (mostly narigin) are the most significant for the estimation of nutritional and biological value of grapefruit juice of industrial production. A glass of grapefruit juice contains, on average, about 10% of the daily requirement in potassium, 6% - in magnesium and about 100% - in vita­min C. The amount of flavonoids in a glass of grapefruit juice provides up to 60% of the adequate daily intake. Conducted studies of fresh grapefruits purchased in the trade network show that the content of potassium, magnesium and vitamin C in grapefruit juice of industrial production is comparable to the content of these micronutrients in fresh fruits.

Food quality control and safety

Investigation of the influence of the melanoidin formation reaction on the content of amino acids in model food systems

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Almost all currently used technologies for the food production are related to the melanoidinformation reaction, which has a significant effect on appearance, taste, nutritional value and consumer properties of the foodstuffs. To assess the effect of heat treatment of food products on their nutritional value, food model systems protein hydrolyzate -glucose, hydrolyzate protein - xylose, hydrolyzate protein - fructose (1:5) have been investigated. The influence of the presence of reducing sugars, the temperature and the duration of heating on the content of amino acids and the extinction of solutions of model food systems have been studied. Linear dependences of the decrease in the total amino acid content in model food systems on the duration of the melanoidin formation reaction have been found. The loss of the total amino acid content when heating to 120 °C for 120 min was 23.9%; at the same time the content of essential amino acids reduced by 15.5-24.6%. The addition of xylose intensified the process of destruction of amino acids in the model system by 12.7%, at the same time glucose provoked the destruction of amino acids by only 2.3%. It has been established that amino acids threonine, isoleucine and histidine were unstable to destruction, regardless of the type of added sugar. When white wheat bread was heated, the loss of its nutritional value was established by reducing the content of such essential acids as threonine (by 26.5%), methionine (by 21.2%), lysine (by 13.3%) and valine (by 12,1%). It was noted that at the same temperature with increasing time of the melanoidin formation reaction, the content of amino acids in the system decreased with simultaneous intensification of the staining of the solutions. Extinction of model food systems varied according to the following equa­tions: hydrolyzate-glucose - y = 0.0022x, hydrolyzate-xylose - y = 0.0028x, hydrolyzate-fructose - y = 0.0032x.

Development and application of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for quantitive determination of volatile N-nitrosamines

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The article presents the results of experimental studies on the development of highly sensitive and selective chromatography-mass spectrometry technique for the determina­tion of 9 N-nitrosamines in food samples (sausage products) using distillation and an automatic solid-phase extraction system on Coconut cartridges for sample preparation. In the elaborated conditions of sample preparation (distillation and solid-phase extrac­tion) and chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis, we achieved a high recovery and efficiency of the separation of nine N-nitrosamines. The quantitation limit was at level of 0.0002 mg/kg with maximum error not exceeding 19%. The complex use of the distil­lation of N-nitrosamines with the addition of potassium hydroxide in combination with the optimal elution scheme for solid-phase extraction and concentrating the distillate into a Coconut carbon cartridge of 6 ml ensures the recovery of N-nitrosamines from the food product sample (sausage products) up to 93.2-100%. The process of approbation of the chromatography-mass spectrometric method in the samples of food products (sausage products) of various manufacturers revealed the content of N-nitrosamines in the con­centration range 0.00029±0.000055÷0.350±0.05 mg/kg. The conducted studies of the content of the sum of highly toxic N-nitrosamines (N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine) made it possible to disclose that in sample No. 5 the maximum allowable concentration was exceeded by 47 times, in samples No. 2 and 16, to 57.5 and 22.9 times and in sample No. 4 to 88 times, respectively.

In the memory of Polyakov Viktor Antonovich

Виктор Антонович Поляков

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Journals of «GEOTAR-Media»