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Physiology and biochemistry nutrition

The experimental evaluation in vivo of hypoglycemic properties of functional food ingredient - polyphenolic food matrix

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The aim of this study was the evaluation of hypoglycemic action of functional food ingredient (FFI) - a polyphenol food matrix in 3-month in vivo experiment with the use of fat male mice C57BL/6. The food matrix was produced by means of incubation of bilberry leaves extract (2% solution, pH 3.6) with buckwheat flour in ratio 1:50 during 45 min at 25 oC. The polyphenol content in experimental batch of matrix was 26.6±0.5 mg-equivalent of gallic acid per 1 g of flour. The experiment was conducted with the use of 46 male mice C57Bl/6c. Blood glucose level was estimated before starting the feeding experiment. An oral fasting glucose tolerance test (GTT) was also conducted, the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups (according to the body weight, glucose level and AUC): control group K1, fed with standard semisynthetic diet, control group K2 (n=10) and experimental groups G3 and G4 (n= 13). The symptoms of type 2 diabetes in groups K2, G3 and G4 were modeled with the use of high-fat high-carbohydrate diet (HFHC diet, 30% fat, 20% sucrose). FFI was included into the diet of animals of experimental groups G3 and G4 in doses 2.5 and 5 g per 100 g of ration, respectively. The GTT test was repeated on the 40th and 82nd days of experiment. On the 15th, 54th and 91st days the insulin resistance test (IRT) was conducted. The consumption of HFHC diet by K2 group animals resulted in development of obesity in these animals to the week 11, which was characterized by increase in the body weight gain (37.1±4.9%) in comparison with control group K1 animals (23.4±2.2%). The introduction of FFI into animal's diet decreased significantly body weight gain of these animals in comparison with K2 group. On the week 8, the significant increase in blood glucose level of animals fed with HFHC diet was found (K2 - 8.2±0.3, G3 - 8.1±0.3, G4 - 8.5±0.3 mmol/L), in comparison with control group K1 (7.1±0.3 mmol/L). On the 91st day of experiment this difference remained significant only for group K2 (9.3±0.6 against K1 group - 7.7±0.3 mmol/L), what shows the beneficial hypoglycemic action of the FFI in both doses (for G3 group - 8.5±0.2, for G4 - 8.4±0.3 mmol/L). On the week 8 the disorder in glucose tolerance was found in animals of group K2, what is one of type 2 diabetes symptoms. The introduction of FFI in a dose 2.5 g/100 g into group G3 diet inhibited the development of these disease symptoms. The introduction of FFI in a higher dose (5 g/100 g of a diet) to a certain extent inhibited the development of insulin resistance. There was no effect of FFI, introduced into animal's diet, on cognitive functions and short-term and long-term memory.

Effect of B-vitamin deficiency on biochemical, immunologic markers and trace element status of rats and mice of various lines

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Biochemical, vitamin, trace element and immunological changes were searched for the combined nutritional deficiency of vitamins B1, B2, B6 on in vivo models in rats and mice. Female rats of Wistar (W) strain and hybrids of the 1st generation of Dark Aguti and Wistar (DA x W) strains, female mice of BALB/c strain and DBCB tetrahybrids were used in experiment. Animals received for 35 days a balanced diet (control) according to AIN-93 or a similar diet with the exception of vitamins B1, B2, B6 (experimental groups). The content of vitamins B1, B2 in liver, riboflavin blood plasma level and urinary excretion of thiamine, riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid were determined, as well as in rats: blood and liver content of α-tocopherol and retinol, blood biochemical indices of lipid and nitrogen metabolism, activity of cytochrome P isoforms-450 (CYP) in liver; in mice: the circulating levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines of blood plasma, in animals of both species - the content of essential and toxic elements in the kidneys. DAxW rats com­pared to W and DBCB mice compared to BALB/c were more sensitive to the development of B-vitamin deficiency judging by the B-vitamin status indicators. In the rats of the experimental groups, there were signs of a deterioration in blood and liver levels of vitamin E, multidirectional shifts in vitamin A sufficiency, increased activity of the CYP3A isoform (6β-TG), a decrease in triglycerides, total protein and albumin fraction levels with an increase in urea level. Manifestation degree of these effects depended on the choice of the animal's line. In mice, the B-vitamin deficiency was characterized by an increase in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-10, IL-Ιβ, IL-6 and a decrease in IFN-γ and IL-17A. The content of magnesium, copper, zinc, chromium and silver was lowered, of cesium - was increased in the kidneys of the rats of the experimen­tal groups. In mice, B-vitamin deficiency resulted in diminishment of magnesium, copper, zinc, chromium, selenium, cadmium and lead content, excess accumulation of cobalt and cesium. Some of these biomarkers are supposed to be used in pre-clinical evaluation of the effectiveness of new vitamin complexes, specialized foods and dietary supplements, as well as studies of interactions of various vitamins.

Hygiene of nutrition

Molecular and genetic studies of genetically engineered potato: transformation event PH05-026-0048

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Expert evaluation of genetically engineered organisms (GMO) identification methods is aimed at confirmation their adequacy with the tool and methodological base used in the institutions of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing to control market turnover and labelling of genetically engineered food. The primer system's specificity was experimentally confirmed in studies with other GM potato lines, as well as with the results of the BLAST-analysis. The efficiency, linearity and correctness of the method meet the requirements of the European Union Reference Laboratory for GM Food and Feed. Limit of detection and limit of quantification of GM potato line PH05-026-0048 genomic DNA were 0.019% (11 copies of the GM potato genomic DNA) and 0.06% (36 copies of the GM genomic DNA of the potato) per 100 ng of total DNA, respectively.

Hygienic characteristics of actual nutrition of the working population Samara Region

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The article presents the data of a retrospective analysis of the average per capita consumption of food by the population of the Samara region in comparison with the all-Russian indicators and recommended values of consumption in the period from 2010 to 2015, as well as the analysis of the actual nutrition of different groups of the working-age population of the Samara region in 2015 (2154 people aged 18 up to 62 years of age, 1179 of them women, 975 men) using the method of 24-hour repro­duction of food and the frequency method with quantitative assessment of consumed products, in comparison with the dynamics of the prevalence of alimentary-dependent diseases. Estimation of parameters of nutritional status was also conducted on blood level of cholesterol and glucose, bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition (n=514). It was found that 48.2% of the subjects had normal body weight, 38.1% -overweight, 13.7% - obesity. The analysis of actual consumption revealed an unfavor­able trend of increasing consumption of fats, as well as sugar from 2010 to 2015, while the consumption of vegetables, fruits and berries was lowed compared to the national indicators and recommended consumption values. The analysis of actual nutrition allowed to make a conclusion about severe violations of the relationships between nutri­ents in the diet of all surveyed populations, characterized by the excess intake of fat (45% of the energy diet value), including saturated fatty acids, and added sugar (13% calories). In the diet of 82% of the respondents the content of vitamins B1 and B2 did not reach the recommended level, niacin - 37%, vitamin A - 47%, vitamin C - 68%, calcium and iron - 14%. With an increase in BMI, there was an increase in blood level of cholesterol and glucose (r=0.24 and r=0.26, respectively, p<0.05), both in men and women. In individuals with excess fat and added sugar in the diet, increased fat body component (r=0.17, p<0.05) and lowered content of skeletal muscle mass (r=0.25, p<0.05) were observed. The revealed unfavorable trend of nutritional and metabolic disorders, against the background of increased consumption of fats, added sugar, indi­cates the need for an integrated approach to the correction of diet at both individual and population levels.

Dairy products and obesity: pro and contra, Russian experience

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The aim of the work was to study the association of overweight and obesity with the consumption of basic types of dairy products among the adult population of Russia. Data from the survey of the diet of adult members of 45,000 households, conducted in 2013 by the Federal Service of State Statistics in all regions of the country, have been used. The actual consumption of food among all members of the surveyed households was studied by 24-hour (daily) diet recall in April and September 2013. The body mass index was calculated on the basis of self-esteem by respondents of body weight and height. It was shown that average daily intake of kefir, yogurt and cottage cheese was higher in women, while consumption of drinking milk and cheeses was higher for men. Consumption of drinking milk and kefir in men and women was much higher in groups with overweight and obesity than with normal body weight. Consumption of yogurt, on the contrary, was much less in people of both sexes with overweight and obesity. Consumption of milk, kefir and cottage cheese increased with age, while consumption of yogurt and cheeses, on the contrary, decreased with age. The data of the variation statistics indicated the existence of a relationship between obesity and consumption of individual dairy products. However, the dependence of these same parameters on age reduced the reliability and evidentiary strength of the results of the variation analysis, since the prevalence of obesity increases significantly with age. To study the association of dairy consumption and the spread of obesity, a logistic regression model was used with the calculation of the odd ratio of the risk of obesity in the consumption of dairy products with adjustment for age, education level and per capita family income. The results of the association analysis, with adjustment for socio-demographic variables, unambiguously showed a significant reduction in the risk of obesity in persons of both sexes consuming yoghurt (OR mean 0.76; CI 0.71; 0.82; р<0.001), cottage cheese (OR mean 0.88; CI 0.85; 0.91; р<0.001), as well as in women with consumption of drinking milk (OR mean 0.87; CI 0.84; 0.91; р<0.001). The increase in the risk of obesity was observed only in men with consuming kefir (OR mean 1.08; CI 1.01; 1.16; р=0.023) or hard cheeses (OR mean 1.14; CI 1.08; 1.20; р<0.001) with adjustment for socio-demographic variables.

Milk raw materials from retrovirus infected cows: questions of safety and quality of produced products

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The questions of quality control and safety of milk raw materials has always been relevant for the dairy industry. One of the most common cattle infection is bovine leukemia (causative agent - BLV), which often occurs in conjunction with a closely related infection -bovine immunodeficiency (causative agent - BIV). These retroviruses are considered to be species-specific, so the key issue for the dairy industry is the nutritional and raw value of milk of infected cows (without clinical signs). Milk of infected with leukemia cows has changed physical and chemical properties and microbiological parameters, but it is allowed to be processed after a single pasteurization. Thus, there is a possibility of getting of the infected with retroviruses cow's milk into the bulk milk, which can affect the quality of the processed products. Characteristics of BlV-positive cow's milk have not yet been studied. The aim of the research was the study of influence of BLV- and BLV- BIV-infected cows' milk impurities (10, 30 и 50%) on organoleptic, physicochemical and microbiological parameters of produced kefir drink. It is revealed that with increasing the mass fraction of infected with retroviruses cows' milk, acidity of composite samples increased of 1-3 °T and total viable bacteria's count rose by 1-3 orders of magnitude, while the total protein in milk decreased by 0.05-0.95% contrasted with an increasing of milk fat content by 0.3-0.9%. However, these characteristics were within normal limits. In samples containing 50% of milk infected with retroviruses cows, coliforms were detected in 0.1 ml, and the rate of total viable bacteria's count exceeded the permissible limits. Therefore, microbiological characteristics are determination markers of dairy raw materials with the high content of milk of the infected with retroviruses cows. The kefir drink was produced from pasteurized samples. It was found that the acidity of the product was lower by 1-10 °T, while the processing time increased by 4-50%, correlating with the mass fraction of infected with retroviruses cows' milk, compared to control. When the mass fraction of infected with retroviruses cows' milk was 30 and 50%, the processed product had a heterogeneous consistency with flake clots. At the same time, the lactic-acid-producing bacterium count in kefir drink decreased by 2 -3 orders, and mold and coliforms were found in it. Thus, the presence more than 10% of milk from infected with retroviruses cows in raw materials leads to a decrease in its technological properties, and dose 30 and 50% leads to non-compliance of the processed product with hygienic standards.

Sources of added sugar and their possible significance in the formation of obesity and overweight

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The results of a study on the frequency of consumption of added sugar by the population of the Central Federal District of the Russian Federation are presented obtained on the basis of a questioning of 2043 persons of both sexes (Moscow, Kaluga, Michurinsk, Tambov). The sample in each age group of the subjects (12-17, 18-30, 31-45, 46-60 years) was about 150 persons of each sex. The gender distribution within the sample was uniform with a slight predominance of females (53.6%). Analysis of the results showed that 58% of those surveyed daily consumed added sugar with hot drinks; of these, 30% of interviewees consumed 1 teaspoon of sugar 2-3 times a day (56-84 kcal per day); 8% of respondents - 4-5 times a day (28-35 g, which corresponded to 112-140 kcal); 6% of the population - 6 or more times a day (42 g or more, more than 168 kcal). Only 22% of the surveyed did not consume sugar with tea and coffee. There was no correlation between BMI, the presence of excessive body weight and the consumption of added sugar with hot drinks. Only frequent intake of added sugar with drinks (2-3 to 4-5 times or more per day) had a statistically determined dependence with an increase in body mass index in the age groups of 31-45 and 46-60 years.

Vitaminology

Vitamin status of adult population of the Russian Federation: 1987-2017

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In a review in order to characterize the dynamics of vitamin status for the period from 1987 to the present, the results of 16 surveys (conducted in 2015-2017) of the sufficiency with vitamins C, A, E, B2 and B6 of adult men and women of working age (about 1200 peo­ple) living in different regions of the Russian Federation, were compared with the frequen -cy of vitamin insufficiency among the population in the previous period. The statistically significant improvement in the population's supply with vitamin C in the previous decade continued in 2015-2017. The deficit of this vitamin practically ceased to occur. Reduced blood serum levels of vitamin A were rare (except for patients with tuberculosis, the indigenous inhabitants of an inaccessible village beyond the Arctic region, and pregnant women, especially in the third trimester). In comparison with the previous period, a fairly rare occurrence of vitamin E deficiency persisted. Vitamin B2 deficiency was still detected in a significant number of subjects (25-75th percentile was at the level of 30-50%) and was encountered approximately at the same frequency as in the previous period. The lack of B vitamins in the adult population was still much more common than the deficiency of vitamins A, E and C. The incidence of the combined deficiency of three or more vita­mins (including, in addition to vitamins C, A, E, B2 and β-carotene, vitamins D, В6, В12, folates) currently ranged from 5 to 39%. In this same range was the frequency of obser­vation of persons sufficiently supplied with all studied vitamins. To improve the vitamin supply of the population, the urgent need for legislative consolidation and/or adoption of normative acts regulating compulsory enrichment of food products of mass consump­tion (bread and milk) with vitamins D and B group has arisen.

Prophylactic nutrition

Optimizing nutrition of older people as a mean of preventing premature aging

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The review presents data on the characteristics of construction of the diet of older persons. It is shown that inadequate nutrition is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, gout and others that contribute to premature aging. Optimization of the diet should be considered as one of the areas of prevention and rehabilitation of these diseases and the prevention of premature aging. Attention is drawn to the age peculiar properties of the energy value of the diet, the content and the ratio of macronutrients in it. Modern data on the recommended daily intake of micronutrients -vitamins, minerals and trace elements for the elderly are presented. From the positions of the theory of oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and high-calorie nutrition, it is considered expedient to include products containing antioxidant ingredients: vitamins, trace elements and minor biologically active food components in the diet.

Chemical composition of foodstuffs

Sour cherry juice nutritional profile

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Russia is one of the main producers of sour cherry, along with Turkey and Poland, and juice products from sour cherry are widely represented in the trade network. Sour cherry contains practically no sucrose, has a high content of organic acids, is rich in mineral and polyphenolic compounds, in particular, in anthocyanins, which give it a bright color. Sour cherry is close to many berries by its composition. At the same time, the literature data on the content of various natural substances in sour cherry juice are not numerous and need to be clarified, especially with reference to the industrially produced juice products. Organic acids of sour cherry juice are represented mainly by L-malic acid (1.2-2.7 g/100 ml). The most significant substances of sour cherry juice are polyphenolic compounds - flavonoids, mainly represented by anthocyanins (about 70% of them is cyanidin-3-O-glucosylrutinoside); phenolic acids - hydroxycinnamic acids, mainly represented by chlorogenic acids and 3-coumaroylquinic acid, as well as mineral substances - potassium, magnesium, copper and manganese. Sour cherry juice has a high acidity and is usually consumed in the form of nectars. Flavonoids content in a portion of sour cherry nectar is about 15% of adequate daily intake, anthocyanins -20%, and the content of hydroxycinnamic acids - exceeds it. One portion of nectar contains on the average 10% of the daily requirement of the human body in copper and manganese, 6% in potassium and 3% in magnesium.

New aspects of non-waste use of secondary raw materials of horse breeding in Yakutia

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In the diet of the population of Yakutia, the meat of 6-month-old and local herd horses is especially valued for its high nutritive value, excellent taste and dietary properties. In addition to meat, a number of other slaughter products, such as by-products, intestinal raw materials, internal fat, blood, etc., can be received during primary processing. Many of them are not fully used. The relevance of this work is to study the possibilities of waste-free use of the Yakut horse products. Biochemical investigation of the composition of the secondary products of slaughter (fat, blood, by-products, intestinal raw materials) was carried out, a concentrate from the internal fat of foals and dry blood were obtained. The inner fat of the Yakut horse in terms of the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) exceeded the PUFA level in subcutaneous fat. The content of linoleic acid was 10.91-12.25%. A low-temperature method for recovering fat has been tested, a fat-containing feed with a PUFA content of about 23% has been obtained. Slaughter blood is a high-value raw material for the production of functional food products as a source of iron, amino acids and other components. The iron content in the blood dried in the infrared dryer fluctuated in insignificant limits from 216.8 to 242.0 mg/kg that indicated a stable level of provision of horses with this trace element. The protein level in the dry blood of mature mares (8-19 years) was 87%. The results of the study of young offspring of the Yakut horse showed that such offal of the first category as liver, heart, kidneys were rich in protein (from 19.1±0.1 to 22.0±0.1%). The esophagus was high in fat (22.3±0.1%). The stomach and intestines were characterized by high ash content (from 3.2±0.2 to 8.0±0.7%).
Book review

The title: Quality of Life. Health and Nutrition: Atlas

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Anniversary

Kochetkova Alla Alekseevna (to the 65th anniversary of the birth)

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Journals of «GEOTAR-Media»