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Reviews

Biological properties of tocotrienols

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The literature review systematizes a lot of information on the biological effects of tocotrienols. The effects are described in more details. Vitamin E was discovered at 20s of the last century, but tocotrienols are a less studied part of it. Tocotrienols exhibit cardioprotective, lipid-lowering, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective properties as it has been shown by recent researches. Edible oils (e.g. palm oil, rice bran oil, barley oil, etc.) contain high level of tocotrienols. So, after extraction from plant raw materials they can be used for long-term preventive therapy of many diseases, as well as for the treatment and enhancement of the action of medicinal substances. They can also be used as functional ingredients to stabilize and extend the shelf-life of food products due to their antioxidant properties.
Vitaminology

Assessment of the sufficiency of Moscow population with folic acid, depending on the combined effect of polymorphism of MTHFR and FTO genes

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The results of assessing the sufficiency of folic acid of the residents of the Moscow region have been presented depending on rs1801133 MTHFR gene polymorphism and rs9939609 FTO gene polymorphism. A total of 326 people were examined, including 74 men and 252 women aged 20 to 65 years. The results of determining the level of folic acid in blood serum showed insufficiency of this vitamin among the population of the Moscow region of the Russian Federation. The expressed vitamin deficit (level <3,0 ng/ml) was detected in 24.2% of the surveyed residents, in 22.8% folic acid level was at the lower bound of the norm (3.0-4.5 ng/ml). The results of genotyping showed a statistically significant association of low folic acid level with rs1801133 MTHFR gene polymorphism in carriers of A allele of rs9939609 FTO gene polymorphism both in the homozygous state (genotype AA) and in the heterozygous (genotype AT) state, OR=4.26; CI (1.40-12.9), p=0.008, as well as with rs9939609 FTO gene polymorphism in carriers of the T allele of rs1801133 MTHFR gene polymorphism both in the homozygous (genotype TT) and heterozygous (CT genotype) state, OR=3.29; CI (1.07-10.1), p=0.03. In carriers of 3 alleles of risk offolic acid deficiency [rs9939609 FTO gene polymorphism and rs1801133 MTHFR gene polymorphism (genotypes CT/AA and TT/AT)] blood serum level of folic acid was below the norm, that indicated folate deficiency in this category of persons.

Hygiene of nutrition

Dietary intake of calcium in pre-school and school children in Russia: main food sources and eating occasions

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It is known that adequate calcium intake determines formation of skeleton and genetic predisposition of its weight and density peak. Optimal calcium intake in the childhood determines risk reduction of density loss and osteoporosis in the adulthood. This research explored contribution of different food sources, as well as eating occasions on calcium dietary intake among preschool and school children (4-13 years old). Mean daily Calcium intake and dairy products consumption depending on family income have been analyzed. Dietary intake was evaluated by 24-hour recall method. National food composition data tables have been used to estimate mean nutrient intake. Dairy products were classified in accordance with local food grouping system. Percent of children consuming products - sources of calcium, amount per consumer, contribution of eating occasions to Calcium intake, foods consumed at breakfast as well as Calcium intake and dairy products consumption depending on household income has been analysed. Nationally representative sample of preschool and school age children, Russia National Nutritional Survey, was conducted in all regions of Russia in 2013 by state Federal Statistics Service - Rosstat. Sample size was 22 771 children split in four age groups: 4-6 y.o. (n=7303), 7-8 y.o. (n=4391), 9-10 y.o. (n=4691) and 11-13 y.o. (n=6386). The study confirmed the indications in the domestic and foreign literature that calcium intake was insufficient in children aged 4-13 years. Data showed age related particularities in consumption of products-sources of Calcium: percent of children consuming milk and milk-based beverages, milk porridges, cottage cheese declined rapidly in older age groups in comparison to preschoolers. A slight increase of cheese consumption was shown in older age groups. Breakfast is an important eating occasion that provides a significant proportion (23-28%) into calcium daily intake in children. Habit of skipping breakfast puts calcium daily intake at risk as it is not compensated throughout the day at other eating occasions. Our results indicate lower daily Calcium intake in breakfast skippers (11-14% of children) compared with kids of the same age who had breakfast at the day of survey. Sweetened tea and coffee consumption increased in older age groups and contrary, a milk and milk based beverages consumption droped in school age. We found lower Calcium intake and lower accessibility to variety of Calcium food sources in low socio-economic class of the children population, where milk seems to be the main product from milk and dairy food group. The findings can assist in developing food-based recommendations for optimal intake of calcium in children's daily diet. Consumption of dairy products is required to meet adequate intake and to low down prevalence of inadequate intake. There is room for improvement of dairy product consumption in terms of variety and number of serving a day especially, for children in older age groups. More attention to be dedicated to breakfast as it is an important eating occasion that contributes significantly to calcium daily intake. Study findings call for intervention programs aiming to correct the inadequacies of calcium intake in schoolchildren's diets, including nutrition education for families and support for accessibility of the products rich in calcium by low socio-economic population groups; for example, by inclusion of milk and dairy products into the school feeding programs.

The structure of macronutrient consumption by the population of various regions of Russian Federation

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The article presents data on the consumption of macronutrients by the population of large cities of all eight Federal Districts of the Russian Federation. Dietary intake assessment was investigated using method of 24-hour recall. The analyzed sample consisted of 11 850 people. The criterion for not inclusion was people working in harmful working conditions and engaged in heavy physical labor. In each of the four age groups (12-17, 18-30, 31-45, 46-60 years), there were at least 150 subjects surveyed for each gender. It has been established that in all districts of Russia the level of consumption of total fats (33.2-38.8% of the energy value of the diet) was exceeded. The level of protein intake was 9.3-11.5% with a rate of 12% of the caloric intake. The share of carbohydrates in the caloric content of the diet was 50.3-56.4% with the recommended rates of 50-60%.

Consumption of carbohydrate-containing beverages and their contribution to the total calorie content of the diet

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The article presents data on the frequency of consumption of carbohydrate-containing sweet carbonated drinks by the population of the Russian Federation and their contribution to the overall caloric intake of the diet. Questioning 11 850 people of different ages (from 12 to 60 years) and sex in all eight Federal Districts of Russia has been conducted. The frequency of food consumption has been studied, and in parallel dietary intake has been assessed using 24-hour recall method. The survey showed a fairly low frequency of consumption of sweet carbonated beverages and no significant differences in the frequency of their consumption by the population of various federal districts of Russia. With a certain frequency from 55.5 to 67.3% of the population consumed sweet carbonated drinks, while 18.1-20.9% of the respondents did not consume them more often 1-3 times a month, and 1.3% of the surveyed (from 0.3% in the NorthWest to 3.9% in the Southern Federal District) - 2 times a day or more often. Analysis of the data obtained showed that the contribution of the carbohydrate component contained in sweet carbonated beverages, even when consumed frequently (5-6 times a week) did not exceed 3.71% of the total diet calorie intake and not more than 7.1% of the caloric value of carbohydrates' intake.
Chemical composition of foodstuffs

The protein biological value of curd produced with transglutaminase and specificities of its impact on growing rats

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The comparative evaluation of protein biological value of curd manufactured by the traditional technology and using microbial transglutaminase has been carried out. The biological experiment was conducted at Wistar laboratory rats fed by the analyzed curd samples as the protein (in the amount of 10% of the total calorie content of the diet) composed of semisynthetic diet. Within 22 days the individual rates of feed eating and the rat's body weight gain have been analyzed. During the exchanged period (from 23 to 24 days) besides the listed readings the amount of nitrogen egested with faeces and urine has been considered. The protein biological value of curd produced with transglutaminase and according to the traditional technology was evaluated by determination of protein efficiency coefficient, true nitrogen absorbency, nitrogenous balance. Besides, at the end of the exchanged period the blood immune component and protein catabolism by means of biochemical blood serum analysis has been evaluated. The results of in vitro analyses make it possible to state the assumption regarding the curd biological value improvement and digestibility of curd protein by means of milk proteins fermentative modification. The revealed reliable increase of the total protein concentration (by 4%), urea nitrogen (over 20%) and creatinine level correlated with high protein amount in the tested product consumed by rats within the exchanged period. The detected reduction of leucocytes and lymphocytes amount in blood of rats consuming the tested curd samples testified the reasonability of the additional investigation of immune reactions. The calculation of the indicators characterizing the biological value of curd protein based on its amino acid composition showed the increase of amino acid imbalance in curd produced with transglutaminase mainly due to lysine excess and the corresponding reduction of assimilability by 1.7%.

Tomato juice nutritional profile

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Every juice contains a unique set of nutritive and biologically active substances, exhibiting the properties of the named fruit or vegetable. To characterize the nutritional profile of tomato juice, the literature data (including official reference books) and the results of studies of domestic industrially produced tomato juices conducted by the Russian Juice Producers Union (RSPS) and its members have been analyzed and summarized. From the point of view of providing a man with micronutrients and minor biologically active substances, tomato juice is a significant source of antioxidants - carotenoids and vitamin E, as well as several minerals and trace elements. The amount of lycopene in a glass of tomato juice (200-250 ml) completely satisfies or exceeds the recommended daily intake of this carotenoid; the level of β-carotene in the same volume of juice provides about 20% of the recommended daily intake of vitamin A; potassium and copper - 12-15%, magnesium, iron, manganese and phosphorus - about 5%. Tomato juice is a source of dietary fiber, including soluble dietary fiber (pectin). A glass of tomato juice contains about 12% of the recommended daily intake of pectins and about 8% of dietary fiber. Wherein the calorie content of tomato juice is low - an average of 19 kcal/100 ml. The article continues a series of publications on juices nutrient profiles.
Diet treatment

The influence of the drying method for food properties and hypolidemic potential of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus)

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The aim of this research was to study the influence of two drying methods: freeze-drying sublimation and dry-air drying on the selected nutritional properties and hypolipidemic potential of fruiting bodies of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). The criteria for evaluation of the food properties were the color, the morphological structure, regidratation capacity, the total level of soluble proteins, fats, polysaccharides, free amino acids and monosaccharides. Lipid-lowering potential of oyster mushroom was evaluated by the concentration of lovastatin and the level of antioxidant activity. It has been experimentally revealed that the value of optical density of hydro-alcohol extracts of dried oyster mushrooms at a wavelength of 295 nm most clearly characterized its color which intensity was almost twice less in sublimated mushrooms, than шт the sample dried by dry-air method. Histological data showed that dry-air drying lead to the destruction of the mushroom cells and to the formation of a dense layered structure. Sublimation drying preserved the ordered cell structure and provided less deformation and shrinkage of the tissues. Using X-ray microtomography it was reported that freeze-dried mushrooms had uniform pore volume distribution. Dry-air dehydration method lead to the formation of larger cavities. The average percentage of the open pores was: 29.41±0.52% (after dry-air method), 11.10±0.41% (after freeze-drying method). Respectively the number of closed pores, which reflected the true value of porosity, was 0.99±0.01 and 1.75±0.01%. Structural differences of the samples of the dry oyster mushroom combined with their unequal hydration ability. Indicator of rehydration for oyster mushroom dried by sublimation method was 5.4±0.1, and for samples obtained by dry-air method it was 3.2±0.1. Respectively the average time of maximum water absorption was 22.7±1.8 and 45.3±2.9 minutes. It was found that the freeze-drying sublimation conditions were more conducive for the preservation of the biologically active protein and polysaccharide components of oyster mushrooms and on the other hand dry-air drying method increased the nutritional value of oyster mushrooms due to the reactions of polysaccharides autohydrolysis. The number of proteins and polysaccharides of the Oyster mushrooms samples dried by dry-air method and freeze-drying method was 72.0% and 56.0% respectively. Concentrations of free amino acids and glucose in the samples dried by freeze-drying and dry-air methods were 11.60±0.31%; 175.20±6.10 mg% and 7.00±0.28%; 144.0±5.7 mg% respectively. It has been experimentally recorded that the conditions of freeze drying were optimal in terms of ensuring the preservation of the content of natural statin and the antioxidant capacity of oyster mushrooms that provided its hypolipidemic potential. The amount of lovastatin in an the freeze-dried samples was 342±9.0 mg/kg, and was significantly higher than in the samples received by dry-air method - 190±6.0 mg/kg. The level of antioxidant activity of the oyster mushrooms samples were respectively 3.83±0.02 against 2.0±0.03 mmol/100 g. The conducted researches proved that for the production of dry oyster mushroom as a potential biologically active feedstock for the functional food products with lipid-regulating directivity the choice of the drying method had a fundamental importance.

Experimental evaluation of hypolipidemic properties of soy and rice proteins and their enzyme hydrolysates. A brief review

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Metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized with high prevalence, constant increase of people suffering from this disease and high rate of cardiovascular complications. The key factors, leading to the development of metabolism disorders during MS, are visceral fat mass growth and decrease in sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin, which are associated with disorders of carbohydrate, lipid, purine metabolism and arterial hypertension. The main results of in vivo studies of hypolipidemic properties of soy protein, rice bran protein and their enzymatic hydrolysates using laboratory rats and mice with experimentally induced or genetically associated dyslipidemia are presented in this review. The analysis of reviewed publications shows that consumption of soy protein provides body weight loss, normalizes lipid metabolism, reduces insulin resistance. The consumption of rice protein by laboratory animals, as well as soy protein, leads to decrease of serum cholesterol level and also provides steroid excretion, such as cholesterol and bile acids, with feces. Enzymatic hydrolysis of food proteins allows obtaining peptide mixtures with high biological value and improved functional properties, especially water solubility and intestinal absorption. In their turn, hypolipidemic peptides of hydrolysates can play a key role in endogenous cholesterol homeostasis by means of disturbing its micellar solubility, intestinal absorption, changing bile acids entherohepatic circulation, and also lowering the expression of some genes of proteins - mediators of lipid transport. It has been concluded, that hypolipidemic properties of obtained enzymatic hydrolysates of food proteins determine the prospects of their use in specialized food products for prevention of metabolic disorders.

Development and evaluation of efficiency of inclusion of specialized meat semi-finished products in the diet of children and teenager with celiac disease

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The purpose of the study is to evaluate the possibility and effectiveness of inclusion of specialized semi-finished meat products in the gluten-free diet of children and adolescents with celiac disease. In the article the authors present the recipe for a new type of specialized meat semi-finished products - gluten-free dumplings. As ingredients of semi-finished products rice flour, amaranth flour, flax flour, chickpea flour, corn starch, curd whey, beef, poultry, goose fat and other auxiliary ingredients were used. The results of studies of the main quality indicators (nutritional value) of a new specialized meat semi-finished product have been presented. The results of studies of the protein component of the product, related both to protein digestibility (evaluated in vitro) and to the degree of its amino acid balance, confirmed its high biological value. To substantiate the effectiveness of the inclusion of gluten-free dumplings in the diet of patients with celiac disease, clinical approbation has been carried out. In an open, prospective, nonrandomized study, 20 children with celiac disease consumed gluten-free diet for 6 months and more were included. Based on the results of the clinical and serological survey, a group of 13 children aged 7 to 15 years (mean age 9.4±0.8 years), strictly adherent to a gluten-free diet, was identified. Children received a portion of the cooked product (15-20 dumplings, which amounted to 180-250 g per day) within 1 month. Against the background of strict adherence to the gluten-free diet and a monthly course of dumplings intake, all children and adolescents were noted to have no elevation, and in some cases, a decrease in the level of specific autoantibodies, which is a proof of the absolute safety of the product for patients. The level of anti-tTG IgA decreased from 1.3 (0.5,2.3) to 0.6 (0.1, 1.3) U/ml (p<0.05), a decrease in the level of anti-DPG IgA from 4.0 (1.1, 5.0) to 1.8 (1.3, 4.1) U/ml (p<0, 05) was also detected. Patients showed a tendency to improve anthropometric indices in the form of a decrease in the lag in the body mass from -0.22±0.3σ to 0.01±0.3σ and BMI from -0.64±0.4σ to -0.52±0.4σ (p>0.05). The hematological indices remained unchanged, while iron blood serum indexes on the background of the product intake improved: ferritin concentration increased from 27.4±3.6 to 37.7±6.0 Mg/l (p<0.05), latent iron binding capacity decreased by 9.6% (p<0.05); total iron binding capacity tended to decrease by 6.4% (p=0.055) with a slight increase in iron transferrin saturation. The data obtained testify a positive effect of a new product intake on quality of a life and improvement of the general condition of patients that gives the basis to recommend the developed dumplings for inclusion in diets of patients with celiac disease.

Recipe and application of new oxygen cocktail with high protein content in nutrition of cardiological patients

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The aims of this study was to develop recipe composition and to evaluate the use of new oxygen cocktail with high protein content in the dietary therapy of cardiological patients. Objects of the study were: the control sample - an oxygen-containing product prepared using dairy whey, fruit and berry juice, highly esterified pectin; experimental samples - oxygen-containing products, which differed from the control sample by additional introduction of whey protein hydrolysate. Experimental samples have been modified by adding to them whey protein hydrolysate in the amount of 1-3% from the total weight of composition. Technological scheme to produce protein-carbohydrate basis with high content of protein 3% has been developed, parameters of the production process were worked out. Analysis of product chemical composition has shown that 100 g contained 3.4-3.6 g of protein, 0.2-0.3 g of fat, 6.0-8.0 g of carbohydrates. Food value of the product made up 34-46 kcal (162-196 kJ). Assessment of effectiveness of new oxygen-containing product in the diet in conditions of cardiological hospital was carried out. 30 patients aged 60-75 years were included in local open prospective study, meeting the following criteria: patients with chronic heart failure I-IIA stage I-II functional classes, were hospitalized in the cardiology department, not having contraindications to enteral oxygen therapy and signed an informed consent form. In combination with standard therapy patients received new oxygenated product with high content of protein in the dose 250 ml (from 100 g of the basis) daily for 10 days during the second breakfast. By the end of the observation period, according to results of the survey, the psycho-emotional state of patients improved. It has been found that the developed oxygen-containing product with high protein content in combination with a standard diet and drug therapy of the disease was well tolerated by patients.
Social and economic problems of nutrution

Nutrition of children in modern Russian family: social and economic aspect

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The aim of this article is to study the problem of the nutritional status of children in a modern Russian family. This work is based on the analysis of statistical data of the results of a sample survey of households' budgets, reflecting the interrelationship between the standard of living of the Russian family and children, its material wealth, the possibility of high quality, high-grade nutrition for all its members, especially children. The standard of living, the share of food expenditure, the consumption of basic food groups, the nutritive and energy value of diets in households with children (a family with one child, two, three or more children) were studied. The article discusses the issues related to the limited consumption of various food products in families with children. There is an increase in consumption of bread products and potatoes, as well as sugar and confectionery products in all types of households with children, but especially in large families, while reducing the consumption of other groups of products. The paper presents an analysis of the nutritive and energy value of the diet in all types of families surveyed. It is emphasized that in households with one or two children the nutritive value of the diet is significantly higher than in large families. In the diet of large families there is a lackof protein (11.8% of calories). The fat content in the diet of families with children exceeds the recommended level (34.8-36.6% of calories). In general, the quality of nutrition in families with one child is higher than in households with two or more children. The nutritional status of children in families with low incomes, which often include the average family with the birth of a child, especially several, does not correspond to the medical and biological standards approved for modern society. Obviously, the higher is living standard of the population, the lower is the share of expenditure on food, and vice versa. With the advent of children, the living standard of a household decreases. Thus, according to official data, the share of food expenditures in families with children in 2016 was 34.4% of the family budget for families raising one child, 36.9% for families raising two children, 40.1% for households with three or more children. Accordingly, the lower is the living standard of the family, the less they spend on maintaining the health of children, their education and recreation. The paper emphasizes that the problem of rational nutrition of the population has a pronounced social and economic significance and belongs to the global categories that play a significant role in ensuring the quality of life of a person, maintaining his health and longevity of life.
Anniversary

Khotimchenko Sergey Anatol’evich (to the 65th anniversary of the birth)

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Kon’ Igor’ Yakovlevich (to the 75th anniversary of the birth)

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Journals of «GEOTAR-Media»