Antiplatelet activity of flavonoids
The review is devoted to the influence of the main subclasses of food flavonoids on the organism. The role of these polyphenolic compounds and containing them foods in reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases is discussed. Particular attention is paid to the influence of flavonoids on the functional activity of platelets. The possible mechanisms of the effect of flavonoids on various links and stages of activation, adherence and aggregation of platelets are analyzed in detail. Most of the available data indicate the ability of these plant polyphenols to correct platelet abnormalities by affecting various receptors, mechanisms of intracellular mobilization of Ca2+, and multiple pathways of intra-platelet signaling. Problems that arise when transferring information obtained in in vitro experiments to the conditions of the whole organism are noted, which indicate the urgent need for further in-depth study of the effects of flavonoids. The data presented allow us to consider flavonoids as a basis for the creation of potentially effective and safe antiplatelet agents that can make a significant contribution to the treatment and prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases.
Potential side effects of caffeine consumption in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents and children (review of foreign literature)
The article analyzes data on the safety of caffeine consumption by various population groups, mainly related to risk groups (pregnant and lactating women, adolescents and children), as well as the adult population, consumers of high doses of coffee. Based on the analysis of the data contained in the published studies, it was concluded that caffeine intake in the amount of 400 mg per day in healthy adults is not associated with obvious side effects in the cardiovascular system, significant changes in reproductive function, does not lead to any or any acute consequences and does not affect the exchange of calcium in bone tissue. In placebo-controlled studies it was found that caffeine, consumed in the range of 50 to 300 mg per day, did not cause serious side effects from the cardiovascular system and the cognitive functions of children and adolescents. In the study of a large group (3747) of children aged 15-16 years who consumed caffeine-containing beverages, according to the questionnaire surveyed, personal self-esteem increased and some behavioral disorders were observed. Studies by foreign authors confirm that consumption of caffeine by pregnant women also does not have side effects on fetal development.
Analysis of regulatory and methodical base in the industry of food for special dietary uses in the Russian Federation
The analysis of the regulatory and methodical basis in the Russian industry of food for special dietary uses is presented in this article. The modern problems in the industry of production, sale, and consumption of food for special dietary uses are mentioned. The tasks and ways to improve the national and supranational regulation of the quality indicators of food for special dietary uses are described. It is shown that evaluation of the efficacy plays an important role in the technology of production of foods for dietary prophylactic nutrition and foods for special dietary uses. With the aim of optimization of the regulatory basis, it is necessary to implement the methods of determination of biologically active substances, as well as evaluation of their efficacy and norms of consumption.
Physiology and biochemistry nutrition
Characteristic of the rats' immune status during vitamin and mineral deficiency
The article presents the results of rats' immune status evaluation in conditions of different levels of B vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B6) and minerals (Fe3+ and Mg2+) supplying. Male Wistar rats (with initial body weight 90-110 g) within 65 days received model diets with 75, 30 and 19% content of the essential substances, females (with initial body weight 56-76 g) received diets with 75, 28 and 18% content. Some indicators of humoral and cellular immunity, including leukocyte count, lysozyme serum activity, IgG and IgE level, cytokine profile of blood serum and of the masses of the immune system internal organs have been examined. It has been shown that the decrease in the content of B vitamins, iron and magnesium in the diet didn't cause complex changes of the rats' immune status, therefore, the proposed model of adaptive potential change is not optimal for studying of immune system condtion. The extensive research of the immune status of rats (18 studied indicators, a sample of 90 males and 90 females) allows to set the range of physiological fluctuations of these indexes in Wistar rats of the corresponding gender and age.
Comparative evaluation of vitamin status and biochemical markers of metabolic syndrome on the models of rodents receiving rations with high quotas of different sugars
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is one of the leading causes of non-infectious pathology among the population of developed countries. It is necessary to have experimental in vivo models of MS for pre-clinical testing of new approaches to its dietary therapy. The purpose of the study was a comparative analysis of functional, biochemical and vitamin markers that characterize the effect of diets with different composition of simple carbohydrates (sugars) on female Wistar rats and female C57Black/6J mice. Animals of each species (n=80) were divided into 5 groups of equal numbers. The animals of the 1st (control) group received a balanced semi-synthetic diet, and the animals of groups from the 2nd to the 5th -the same diet and 30% solutions of sugars - glucose (Gl), fructose (Fr), equimolar mixture Gl and Fr and sucrose instead of water, in the regime of free access for up to 133 days. Measured values included blood pressure, mass of internals, biochemical parameters of blood plasma, the activity of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP3A and glutathione transferase (GT) in liver, glutathione peroxidase (GP) in erythrocytes, the content of vitamins A and E in blood plasma and in liver, the level of vitamins B1 and B2 and nicotinamide coenzymes in liver. Interspecific differences in the response to sugars manifested in a decrease in the solid diet consumption in mice (in contrast to rats), so that the total consumed energy value in experimental groups of mice did not differ systematically from control, and the weight gain was reduced. Liver was the most sensitive organ to addition of sugars in both rats and mice with mass significantly increasing by the 2nd and the 4th months of the experiment. Hyperglycemia and triglyceridemia were the most noticeable in rats receiving Fr. The concentration of phosphorus increased significantly in blood plasma of all rats groups that received sugars. In rats there was a decrease in the activity of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in groups 3 and 5, the activity of CYP2B1 in groups 2 and 5, the increase in HT activity in groups 2, 4 and 5, and GP in group 3 at 56th day of experiment. There was a significant decrease in this index in group 3 at the 56th and the 133rd days of the experiment, and in groups 4 and 5 - at the 56th day. Plasma tocopherol to triglycerides ratio decreased in rats of group 3 at the 56th and 133rd days, groups 4 и 5 - at 56th day, which indicated the decrease of vitamin E safety. Sugars consumption suppressed retinol palmitate accumulation in the liver of rats and mice, and alpha-tocopherol in mice. It was concluded that Fr had the greatest effect on the studied indicators of the organism, and the rats showed the most significant similarity with the clinical picture of MS.
Specialized foods with a modified carbohydrate profile in the correction of metabolic disorders in type 2 diabetes
The review of the literature is devoted to the analysis of scientific publications concerning the optimization of nutrition of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 due to inclusion in the ration of specialized foods with a modified carbohydrate profile. Modification of the carbohydrate profile of specialized foods can be achieved by excluding quickly absorbed refined sugars, by using a mixture of slowly digestible and slowly absorbed carbohydrates, enrichment with fructooligosaccharides and soluble dietary fibers. Purposeful introduction of food ingredients with favorable metabolic effects into the composition of the products makes it possible to effectively correct the disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Development of technology and study of the immunobiological properties of a sour milk beverage based on camel milk
The article presents data on the technology of production of a fermented milk product based on camel milk and the evaluation of its immunotropic properties in experiment on 60 male mice F1 (CBAxC57Bl/6) with an initial body weight 17.8±0.1 g. To simulate immune suppression, mice were injected cyclophosphamide intraperitoneally (125 mg/kg b.w). The fermented milk product was daily administered orally in a volume of 0.5 ml/mouse for 30 days (n=30). The animals of the control group (n=30) received a similar amount of distilled water. The study of the immunotropic activity of a fermented milk drink on the model of immune deficiency showed that a 30-day administration to mice caused an increase in the number of antibody-plaque-forming cells (IgM-AFC) by 1.3 times in spleen of mice (32,4х103 vs 24.7x103 per organ in the control group). The analyzed drink strengthened the effector phase of the response of the cellular response to erythrocytes of the sheep. Thus, in mice treated with distilled water (control group), the reaction index was 7.80%, while in mice of the main group it increased by 70% and amounted to 13.26%. The use of a fermented dairy product in immune-deficient mice resulted in a significant (by 63%) increase of antioxidant activity of blood plasma. At the same time, the imbalance in the functioning of antiradical protection enzymes (catalase and superoxide dismutase) reduced sharply, indicating an increase in the adaptive capacity of the organism, disturbed by the introduction of an immune suppressive compound. The obtained data indicate a pronounced immune modulating and antioxidant effects of the fermented dairy product based on camel milk, which can be used in the prevention and in complex therapy of secondary immune deficiencies and inflammatory diseases.
Biologically active composition for regulation of lipolysis process in the organism under obesity
The aim of the research was to study the mechanism of intermolecular interaction of allicin and lecithin with pancreatic lipase, and developing the composition, contributing to the inactivation process of lipolysis, and reduce the absorption of fats in the organism. Methods of computer chemistry have been used for modeling spatial structures of allicin and lecithin. Geometric optimization was carried out, quantum chemical characteristics and the distribution of charge density of the molecules of the studied biologically active substances and pancreatic lipase were studied. In the study of the molecular properties of the lipase of pancreatic juice before and after molecular docking, it was found that one molecule of lecithin didn't fully block the active site of the enzyme. For complete inactivation of lipase, two molecules of lecithin or one molecule of allicin were required (Epot. = -412.36 and-159.4 kcal, respectively). An optimal composition of supplement to blocking pancreatic lipase has been set: allicin containing additive - 95% (75% sunflower oil, 25% chopped garlic), lecithin - 5%. The efficacy of lipase inactivation by supplement stored at 2-4 °C in fat-water mixture has been studied. It was found that after storage for three days the developed composition retained its properties. Acid number of fat, subjected to enzymatic treatment varies slightly (0.1 to 0.25 mg KOH/g). Peroxide value and microbiological characteristics of the investigated fraction also did not exceed the permissible norms. When evaluating the biological value of the developed composition in the experiment on white BALB/c mice (with initial body weight of 20-30 g), it was found that its administration on the background of high fat (19%) diet at a dose of 6% of the diet fat from the 15th to the 40th day was accompanied by 1.5 fold reduce in body weight increasing in comparison with animals which received no additives. Their blood levels of total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose reduced while the level of total protein and urea increased to the level of the control group (without obesity).
Nutrition of sportsmеn
The individual approach to energy consumption among the sambo sportsmen
In the present survey the results of energy expenditure investigation of 14-16 years old (n=100) male sambo athletes', studying at Center of Sport and Education "Sambo-70", at the stage of the instant arrangement for startup, are presented. Serious differences in the level of athletes' energy expenditure depending on training load have been identified in the course of investigations. On the ground of the pre-contest stage training model the combinations of the most common conditioning exercises are determined. By the analysis of energy expenditure out of training and during the training activity, the average data of general (daily) energy expenditure in accordance with the amount and the direction of training load are deduced. The difference between the roughest and the rest day amounted to 2075 kcal a day. The significant varies in energy expenditure of different weight category athletes have been found. It has been revealed that during the single training load execution of the same volume and intensity, the representatives of the lightweight athletes (45-50 kg) burn, at the average, 377 kcal less than the heavy-weight ones (81-85 kg), which amounts not less than 15% of the energy value of average daily ration.
Influence of the carbohydrate-protein phytolactate drink on the physical working capacity and endurance of experimental animals
The study analyzes the effect of a new carbohydrate-protein phyto-lactate drink on the physical performance and endurance of BALB/c mice. The main carbohydrate andprotein component in the new product was carrot juice and skim milk. Data on the technology of manufacturing a sterilized beverage have been presented. The study of the influence of the milk-carrot drink on the performance and endurance, carried out in accordance with the Porsolt test («forced swimming»), was performed on 34 male BALB/c mice, with initial bode weight 22-24 g. An experimental group of animals (n=12) was injected daily with a milk-carrot drink per os in a volume of 0.8 ml (32 ml/kg of body weight) for 28 days, carrot juice or distilled water in the same volume were administered per os in the control groups. It was shown that the introduction of the drink improved the physical working capacity of laboratory animals, confirmed by an increase in the duration of swimming of mice by 34.6% (р<0.05). At the same time, the introduction of pure carrot juice to mice on the basis of which the milk-carrot drink was created also increased physical working capacity, compared to the control group, who received per os a similar volume of water by 17.8% (р<0.05). However, the duration of swimming of the mice of this group was shorter in comparison with the same index in mice injected with the drink (р<0.05).
Micronutrients in nutrition
Evaluation of vitamin status of workers of oil-processing enterprises (Samara Region) according to the data on vitamin consumption and blood serum level
Vitamin status of 77 employees of oil refineries (39 men and 38 women aged 22 to 62 years, body mass index - 25.0±4.7 kg/m2) has been assessed in autumn. The sufficiency with vitamins A, E, D, B2, B12, folate and beta-carotene was evaluated by determination in blood plasma, daily intake of vitamins B1, B2, niacin, C, A and beta-carotene was calculated by frequency of food consumption during previous month. All surveyed were sufficiently supplied with vitamins A, B12 and folate (reduced level was detected in 0-2.6%). The content of tocopherols referred to triglycerides was reduced in 33% of the workers, in men it was 2 fold more likely (p<0.05) than in women (43.6 vs 21.1%). Vitamin D insufficiency took place in 23.4% of individuals, vitamin B2 and beta-carotene - in 44.2%. A reduced blood plasma content of one vitamin was detected in 39.0% of the surveyed, while two vitamins - in 24.7% persons, 2.2 fold more often (p<0.05) in men than in women. Multivitamin insufficiency was detected in 10.4% of workers. Reduced blood plasma level of at least one vitamin-antioxidant was detected in 46.8% (in 61.5% of men and 31.6% of women, p<0.05). 26.0% of surveyed were provided with all 6 vitamins and beta-carotene. Reduced relative to RDA daily intake of antioxidant vitamins (ascorbic acid and beta-carotene) was observed in 64.9 and 100% of individuals, B group vitamins (niacin, B2 and B1) - in 48.1-64.9%, vitamin A - in 42.9%.
Chemical composition of foodstuffs
Orange juice nutritional profile
The article continues a series of publications on juices nutrient profiles. Based on the literature data, scientific articles on the content of nutritive and biologically active substances in orange juice and the results of studies of various samples of orange juice of domestic industrial production conducted by the Russian Union of Juice Producers (RSPS), the article presents the nutrient profile of orange juice which contains more than 30 nutritive and biologically active substances. Potassium, copper, folate, vitamin C, as well as flavonoids (mostly hesperidin) are the most significant for industrial orange juice from the point of view of providing human body with micronutrients and minor biologically active substances. A glass of orange juice (200-250 ml) contains, on average, about 14% of the daily requirement in potassium, 7% - in copper, 25% - in folates and about 100% - in vitamin C. The content of flavonoids in a glass of orange juice is about 60% of daily recommended intake of these substances. Orange juices contain dietary fibers - both soluble (pectins) and insoluble. The total content of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in a glass of orange juice with pulp on averages is 5% of the daily requirement in dietary fiber.
Antibiotic-free poultry production based on innovative nutritional programs with the involvement of probiotics
EU banned antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) for farm animals and poultry since 2006 in relation to the problem of drug resistance. This requires alternative products for equally efficient prevention and treatment of certain alimentary poultry diseases. One of the most actual trends is the development of innovative nutritional strategies for poultry providing an effective symbiosis between the host and its intestinal microbiota. The study presented was aimed at the comparative evaluation of productivity, nutritive value of meat, and composition of intestinal microbial populations in broiler chicks fed different diets (corn -soybean meal, wheat - sunflower cake, barley - sunflower cake) supplemented with AGP or a probiotic (cellulolytic and lactic microorganisms). In three trials straight-run Cobb 500 broilers reared from 1 to 36 days of age were fed these diets supplemented with bacitracin from 1 to 29 days of age (control) or probiotic preparation from 1 to 36 days of age (70 birds per dietary treatment in each trial). There were no differences in live bodyweight and carcass yield between the treatments in all three trials. In the two trials with sunflower cake, protein content in breast meat was significantly higher by in birds fed probiotic in compare to birds fed AGP (by 10.0 and 6.8%, p<0.05), while fat content in thigh meat was lower by 12.0% (p<0.05) and 14.1% (p<0.01), respectively. Content of amino acids in meat did not differ. Vitamin content in the poultry meat of the experimental groups was significantly higher compared to control (p<0.001). The resulting concentrations of bacitracin in meat in control treatments (no more than 0.02 U/g) did not exceed local legislative limitations. The substitution of the probiotic for AGP beneficially affected the composition of bacterial populations in the duodenum and cecae determined using T-RFLP analysis. It was concluded that the supplementation of diets with probiotic allows to produce antibiotic-free broiler meat without detrimental effects on the productive performance.
Food quality control and safety
Comprehensive assessment of the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dependence of their accumulation in meat products
Dependences of the quantity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on the conditions for the formation of components of smoke compositions, the type of wood, the formulation, the technology of production, and the type of packaging material have been studied. An increase in temperature from 450 to 700 °C lead to a 2-3-fold increase in the amount of PAH in meat products. It has been established that the use of a polyamide coating reduced the total carcinogenicity of sausages by 2.0-3.7 fold compared with protein and natural shells, which in terms of PAH accumulation were the most dangerous. Fibrous shell was able to provide a reduction in PAH level in the product up to 40% compared to natural one. The permeability of the fat fraction of the product for PAH was up to 10 fold higher than that of proteins and carbohydrates. The data obtained made it possible to determine the safety criteria for smoked meat products, taking into account the potential carcinogenic hazard of each PAH. The optimal indicators of the presence of PAH in the product are 8 PAH (benz[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d] pyrene). The PAH exposure on the human body has been determined under the constant consumption of smoked meat products. The prospective use of barrier protection technologies, substances possessing antiradical activity, and protective films to reduce residual PAH content has been proved. The results of the studies showed a 5-fold decrease in the total amount of PAH when using films impregnated with fat-containing micro anemulsion of vegetable or animal fat. The effect increased when meat was marinateв in a 9% solution of acetic acid or 3% solution of ascorbic acid.
In memory of Ladodo Kaleriа Sergeevnа
In memory of Fateeva Elena Markovna
Управление ресурсами и контингентом симуляционного центра
The system approach to the simulation center management provides for a subsystem of organization and motion control of integrated resources flows and allows to consider a simulation center in some way as a micrologistic system. The works on creation of the automated subsystem of resource management and users of a simulation center described in this article focused on the automation of management processes of material and technical resources and their supplies, distribution of rooms and classrooms, recording the movement of all categories of the population. When creating the architecture and logic of the automated subsystem of resource management and users of a simulation center were considered some principles and tools of warehouse and procurement logistics, among them peculiar properties of the organization of procurement procedures, aimed at analysis and control of information and material flows movement in order to rationalize and optimize all types of resources. Designed subsystem of resource management and users of a simulation center due to automation of a number of processes, connected with the resource management of the simulation center, will ensure the uninterrupted functioning of a simulation center and effective implementation of all business processes.