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Physiology and biochemistry nutrition

Basal metabolic rate as an integral indicator of metabolism intensity

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The basal metabolism rate (BMR) is of great importance in the assessment of daily energy requirements and physical activity level of a person. Article reviews the factors influencing the BMR. The BMR significantly correlates with weight, height, age, sex. Prediction equations based on these factors account for approximately 70% of the variability of the basal metabolism. However, these equations do not take into account the effect of body composition. The BMR is associated with lean body mass. Among body composition indicators lean body mass is the strongest determinant of BMR. The rate of basal metabolism, predicted on the basis of the relationship with the lean body mass covers the same 70% of the variability that are determined by gender and age differences, as most of the variability due to gender and age differences. In addition, the role of physical activity and nutrition as factors that affect the value of the BMR is discussed. The conclusion is made that lean body mass is the strongest predictor of BMR. Body fat mass also affects the basal metabolic rate as well as physical activity level and nutrition.

Hygiene of nutrition

The study of nutrition, anthropometric tеstes and body composition among native and alien population of Russian Arctic

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Arctic zone refers to the territories that are uncomfortable for living and working of people. Ecological features of the Far North have contributed to the adaptation of the indigenous population to the conditions of the external environment, which manifested in the peculiarities of nutrition and nutritional status, which is also related to the presence of genetic polymorphisms in the population of the Arctic zone. The study of nutrition and the nutritional status of 180 people (78.9% woman и 21.1% man) living in the Far North was conducted. The data obtained indicate that the prevalence of overweight and obesity (62.7%) among the surveyed people living in the Arctic zone, was higher than among Russian people (average 57.3%). Indigenous people (mean age -45.6±1.3 years) compared with alien population (45.1±2.6 years old) had lower BMI (27.2±0.5 vs 28.8±1.3 kg/m2) and a smaller hips along with significantly (p<0.05) lower relative fat body mass (31.9±0.9 vs 35.4±1.4 kg), lean (67.1±0.8 vs 64.6±0.9 kg) and bone body mass, as well as exchange at rest (1329.9 ± 16.0 vs 1455.4±44.0 kcal). Indigenous population consumed significantly more bakery products and fish (1.5-2.2 fold), and less - dairy products and vegetables (1.7-2.0 fold). Thus, the peculiarities of the nutritional status of the indigenous and alien populations of the Arctic seem to be associated with the traditions of nutrition and lifestyle.

Diet pattern and health of working people

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By results of a research of the International Bureau of Work (IBW), malnutrition at work costs the world community of 20% work decline in production. Chronic noninfectious diseases which risk factors are disturbances of nutrition cause about 46% of morbidity and 60% of mortality in the world, including to 30% of mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Economically developed countries face larger financial losses from an obesity. So annual expenses, such as medical insurance, paid sick days, holidays and other payments make from 2 to 7% from the total amount of expenses on health care. Catering establishments in institutions are capable to provide the maximum approach to an optimum nutrition of employees, including, regimen of meals (a breakfast, a lunch and an afternoon snack, and sometimes and a dinner) that will provide prophylaxis of a series of the major noninfectious diseases, such as infarct, stroke, diabetes mellitus of the II type, cancer.
Nutrition of sportsmеn

Experimental and scientific formulation development of a specialized (sport) product, enriched with probiotic microorganisms

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The aim of the work is to scientifically justify the formulation of a probiotic food product for sports nutrition using a functional food ingredient. As a functional food ingredient, the association of probiotics (Lactobacillus and bifidobacteria) immobilized in a gel of biopolymers was studied. The main raw material used was cow's fat-free milk; as components that regulated the protein-carbohydrate composition of a multicomponent product, the whey protein isolate, natural honey and maltodextrin were chosen. A complex containing defibrated blood and an extract of reindeer antlers was used as an adaptogen of animal origin. In order to complement the qualitative and quantitative composition of vitamins and minerals, a premix containing 7 vitamins, calcium and iron was used. The process of obtaining a functional ingredient for fermenting a normalized mixture and enriching the product with viable probiotic cells is outlined. To protect them in the aggressive conditions of the technological process, as well as in the stomach and intestine, the process of immobilization by incorporating the association of probiotics into the gel of biopolymers was studied. The effectiveness of the delivery of the association of probiotic microorganisms immobilized in the gel of biopolymers was proved by carrying out studies in simulated conditions of the stomach and intestine. The functional food ingredient obtained experimentally was used for fermentation of a normalized mixture of components in the technology of a fermented (sour-milk) product for sport's nutrition.
Food quality control and safety

Control over genetically-modified sources of plant origin in food: scientific basis and methodical maintenance

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The article presents data on global production of genetically modified organisms of plant origin (GMO), as well as on basic principles of organizing and methodical maintenance of the GMO control system in the framework of worldwide trend to increasing usage of such products. The results of GMO turnover monitoring, that was conducted by Rospotrebnadzor in 2003-2016 (there were made more than 300 000 analysis), indicate a decrease of such products usage: from 10-12% in 2003-2004 to less than 0.1% to in
2016.

Optimization of microbiological methods for food control based on the differential-diagnostic media for the isolation and cultivation of bacteria of the genus Campylobacter

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А screening study on the detection of campylobacteria in raw food products, semi-finished products and objects in the external environment in the poultry processing industry was conducted. The highest level of detection of campylobacteria is set for raw poultry products, including carcasses of broilers, turkeys and quail. A general accordance of getting Campylobacter in raw materials and food products with inadequate sanitary treatment of separate areas of production has been established: in most cases Campylobacter spp. was extracted from the samples, contaminated with coliform bacteria and Salmonella. It is shown that the frequency of contamination of raw poultry with pathogens is largely dependent on the cooling of the carcasses. When using the immersion method, the conditions for cross contamination with pathogens through water bath cooling are present (45% of samples infected with Campylobacter spp.). Under combined use of super-cooled water and aerosols Campylobacter were also detected quite often in 27% of samples. Contamination by pathogens was the lowest in evaporative cooling method with the use of antimicrobial hydrospray (less than 5% positive samples), allowing to recognize this method as the most promising for the production of microbiological safe products. The work on optimization of nutrient medium composition and adaptation recommended methodological scheme of analysis for detection and species identification of bacteria of the genus Campylobacter was carried out. Formulation of traditionally used growth media was modified, and balanced composition of growth and selective components was matched in accordance with the requirements of existing standards. Given the urgency of increasing the effectiveness of the methods of control of campylobacteria in foods and the lack of domestic analogues of the culture media in the Russian Federation, an optimized method for the production of dry nutrient media for the detection, identification and storage of campylobacteria isolated from food products and clinical material was developed. The conducted study allowed to develop Technical conditions 21.20.23-006-01897222-2016 «Dry culture medium for detection of bacteria of the genus Campylobacters and «Instruction for use of culture media». Depending on the purpose of the medium produced in the following versions: the selective broth for enrichment of campylobacteria; differential selective agar for isolating and quantifying of Campylobacter spp.; semi-solid nutrient agar for cryostorage of Campylobacter strains. The list of criteria for assessing the quality of commercially available lots of dry media included: solubility, pH, gel strength of agar, the content of amine nitrogen, specificity, selectivity, growth and inhibitory properties. The practical application of these media in terms of the national laboratories will significantly simplify the use of existing standards developed based on international ISO standards, but not adapted to the main range of commercial media and reagents used in routine food control for the presence of campylobacteria.

Nuclear activation analytical methods and X-ray fluorescence analysis in application to determination of pollutants and trace elements in food and for studying biokinetics of nanoparticles

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For assurance of food quality and safety, it is necessary to control routes of food pollutants, including toxic trace elements in all stages of handling, ranging from the production of agricultural products, including the processing, storage, transportation, and ending with cooking and consumption. For this control the nuclear activation analytical methods (NAAMs) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) are studied and developed for the detection of chemical elements in different environments. NAAMs involve two stages: the activation of nuclear isotopes with thermal neutrons or fast charged particles and gamma spectrometry. XRFA technique is based on detecting characteristic fluorescent X-rays of elements. Interest in these methods is due to the relative simplicity of the analysis, the ability to provide the required sensitivity and accuracy of detection of chemical elements. The main objective of the research work is to demonstrate the potential of these techniques for controlling the quality and safety of food products and for research of trace elements' biokinetics with achieving the required accuracy (no worse than 15%) and sensitivity (below the permissible concentrations of harmful substances) and to prepare them for the practical application. Both methods complement each other in terms of expanding the list of detected chemical elements and choosing the best option in the analysis depending on the type of the test sample and readiness of technical means. In addition to the analysis of NAAMs and XRFA capabilities two different but partly connected research options were performed using NAAMs: 1) control of food quality and safety; 2) research of biokinetics of nanoparticles (NPs), incoming with food and water into laboratory animals with special attention to overcoming biological barriers. One of the important result is the demonstration of overcoming the blood/brain barrier by silver NPs when they are ingested into the animals with food or water, and possibility of their accumulation in brains with extremely low excretion (~6% per month).

Development of a technique for the determination of inulin in natural instant chicory after enzymatic hydrolysis by high-performance liquid chromatography

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A highly specific technique for estimating inulin content in natural instant chicory based on the determination of fructose after enzymatic hydrolysis with amyloglucosidase and inulinase by high-performance liquid chromatography with refractometric detection has been developed. Determination of inulin content was carried out by a system for high per­formance liquid chromatography Agilent 1260 Series with a refractometer, Waters Sugar-Pah column of 10 μm x 6.5 mm x 300 mm: isocratic elution mode (mobile phase - water) with a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min, column temperature - 80 °C, injected sample volume -10 μι Inulin content in samples of soluble natural chicory ranges from 4 to 25%. It has been shown that the developed technique can be applied in the quality control of products used for the preparation of soluble natural chicory beverages.

Determination of N-nitrosodiphenylamine in meat canned food for children by the method of chromato-mass-spectrometry

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This study demonstrates the results obtained from the GC/MS experimental determination of low concentrations of N-nitrosodiphenylamine in meat canned baby food in the concentration range of 0.027-3.89 mg/kg. The perfect conditions of sample preparation (extraction with organic solvent and solid phase extraction) as well as the application of the chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed us to detect N-nitrosodiphenylamine in samples of the meat canned baby food with high selectivity in concentrations ranged from 0.016 to 5 mg/kg when an error of 23% was assumed. The use of the reaction of transesterification of fatty acids by potassium methylate, the removal of the ester generated from the samples of canned meat by organic solvent (hexane), concentrating of N-nitrosodiphenylamine in the aqueous layer on the cartridges of an automatic solid-phase extraction system provided 99.94% extraction of N-nitrosodiphenylamine from the canned meat samples. The experiment has made evident the presence of N-nitrosodiphenylamine in the samples of canned meat (beef + chicken) with the help of mass-spectrometry method in the mode of full ion scanning using the AMDIS automatic mass-spectral identification system.
Chemical composition of foodstuffs

Enzyme preparations and biocatalytic processes in the food industry

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Enzyme preparations are essential to biotechnological processes for the production of food. Classification of enzymes, the specificity of their action on various substrates and processes of obtaining enzyme preparations based on various microorganisms-producers of enzymes are presented. Overview of the world and internal market of enzyme preparations used in the food industry is provided. The issues of efficient bioconversion of different plant materials to improve the quality of juices, fruit drinks, reducing the viscosity and increasing the productivity of biologically valuable components for functional products are considered; microbial raw materials - to produce protein or amino acid and vitamin enriched foods, as well as food ingredients; animal raw materials - for intensification of technological processes, for processing of wastes of meat, dairy industry, as well as in cheese making to improve the quality of products. The review is of scientific and practical interest for specialists in the field of biotechnology of food production of high quality food obtained by the enzymatic conversion of different types of agricultural raw materials.

Gingerbreads of enhanced nutritional value with the non-traditional raw materials

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The results of the research on quality indicators and nutritional value of gingerbreads made from non-traditional raw materials are presented. The flour from whole-hulled chickpea seeds, whole-wheat flour, flour from the buckwheat bran and mustard oil has been used. Non-traditional types of flour were added in the form of flour composite mixture instead of wheat flour (50%) according to the recipe of glazed gingerbread, mustard oil -8% to the total weight flour. It has been shown that the usage of unconventional materials can improve the organoleptic and physic-chemical parameters, increase the antioxidant activity, and enhance the nutritional value of gingerbreads produced according to GOST 15810-2014. It has been found that the consumption of 100 g of enriched gingerbread products satisfied the average daily requirement of protein by 10%, fat by 2-6%, carbohydrates by 19%, dietary fiber by 14%, calcium, potassium and selenium by 5-8%, magnesium, phosphorus and iron from 15 to 30%, vitamins B1, B2 and PP by 8-11%, vitamin E by 3-18%, essential amino acids from 9 to 20%.

The study of starter cultures compositions influence on the cholesterol level in fermented meat products

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The article considers the possibility of using starter cultures compositions to reduce cholesterol in meat fermented products. An analysis of own researches and other scientific data allowed to conclude that the ability to reduce cholesterol by starting cultures in vitro is the strain-specific property. In view of the technological properties and the ability to reduce cholesterol in vitro, six compositions of starter cultures from the MGUPP collection were suggested. The compositions consisted of microorganisms belonging to the three genuses: Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Staphylococcus. The absence of antagonism between the strains within each composition was determined by perpendicular strokes. Strains of each composition were co-cultured in a medium containing cholesterol. The residual cholesterol amount in the medium was determined after 24 hours by the Zlatkis-Zakmethod. This method is based on the cholesterol reaction with FeCl3 in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid and glacial acetic acid to form a yellow colored complex. It was found that the compositions showed stronger activity for cholesterol reduction than each strain separately. Synergistic effect of cholesterol reduction was detected in starter cultures strains included into compositions. Reduction of cholesterol observed at 25.0-45.7%of its initial concentration in the medium. In those compositions, which included strains with a high capacity to reduce cholesterol, total cholesterol degradation ability was also higher. It was found that starter cultures reduced cholesterol not only in vitro, but also in the process of meat raw material fermentation in production of dry-smoked sausage. Composition a (Lactobacillus sakei 105, Pediococcus pentosaceus 31, Staphylococcus xylosus 45 at a ratio of 1:1:1) was chosen for the manufacture of dry-smoked sausage. Bacterial composition was introduced into the meat raw materials on the mince preparation step in an amount of 109 CFU/g mince. Cholesterol maintenance in minced meat and ready-made dry-smoked sausages was determined by HPLC. In minced meat it was 840±10 mg/kg. In the ready sausages the greatest amount of cholesterol was detected in the control sample and was 971±15 mg/kg. Increasing cholesterol levels apparently due to loss of product weight by drying. Cholesterol level decreased by 21.4% in the test sample with the addition of bacterial composition (763±12 mg/kg).

Child Nutrition

Development of the infant formula industry

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The creation of the first prototypes of modern breastmilk substitutes at the end of the nineteen century brought in a new era in feeding infants in the first year of life. Currently, artificial feeding of newborns consists of adapted milk formulae made with the latest production technologies. This review briefly discusses the history of the development and classification of breastmilk substitutes, the main local and international documents regulating their composition, as well as the basic principles of approximation (adaptation) of formulae to breast milk. Obviously, these issues are key in understanding the specifics and correct definition of the prospects and directions for the development of the breastmilk substitute industry.

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