The influence of diets on metabolic processes associated with sirtuin1
Over the last decade the investigations of the sirtuin protein family have become one of the research priorities. It is connected with the fact that sirtuins play an important role as regulators of cell homeostasis in mammals. Sirtuins can regulate metabolism by the influence on some processes in CNS, liver, pancreas, musles, adipose tissue. It emphasizes the importance of sirtuins in the development of heart diseases, cancer, metabolic syndrome, neurodegenerative and some other diseases. Stress factors in particular calorie restriction alter sirtuins activity, that leads to some significant alterations of intracellular processes: activation of reparation processes, increase of DNA stability, elevation of metabolic rate and the lifespan of cells. In this review, we focus our attention on the influence of calorie restriction on metabolic alterations associated with regulatory role of sirtuin1. Sirtuin1 plays a leading role in regulation of cell homeostasis by controlling some important processes, such as gene transcription, cell differentiation, stress reaction, inflammation, apoptosis, circadian rhythms and life expectancy. We touch briefly on the connection between some alterations of diet and the development of stress reaction and inflammation. In the review the metabolic alterations in liver, pancreas, adipose tissue and central regulatory role of sirtuinl in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis connected with calorie restriction are discussed. Sirtuin1 can be a messenger of some effects of calorie restriction on organism, acting as a cell energy sensor. Thus, sirtuinl plays a central role in control and modulation of metabolic processes under alterations of diet. Having been one of the most important regulator of homeostasis, sirtuinl can be a key element of regulation. The influence on this element gives the opportunities of regulation of metabolism, calorie restriction effects and creation of new pathogenical methods of treatment.
Streptozotocin induced diabetes rat models
The introduction of chemical compounds in diabetes modeling can't adequately reflect the development of the disease. However, the choice of an experimental model of diabetes type 1 or 2 is largely determined by the purpose of the research: testing of pharmacological activity, genetic research or clarifying the mechanisms of disease development. The high cost of respective genetic lines of laboratory animals, the complexity of reproduction of the model, the special conditions of care and a high degree of inbreeding determine the necessity for the development, testing, and improvement of non-genetic models. The most widely used chemical models of type 1 diabetes in modern experimental diabetology are alloxan models and of type 2 or mixed type diabetes are streptozotocin models. Sensitivity to the introduction of the diabetogenic compounds can essentially depend on the species, but also on animal genetic line and its age. The results of studies in which the injection of streptozotocin (STZ) to laboratory animals (mice and rats) simulated type 2 diabetes are shown. It is noted thatpre-treatment with nicotinamide can simulate the state more appropriate to type 2 diabetes. Taking into account the leading role of abdominal obesity as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, considerable attention in the article is paid to the modeling of type 2 diabetes by STZ-injection and high-fat diet. As alternative models of a type 2 diabetes in rodents also induce by streptozotocin injection and high fructose diet. The combined effect of low dose STZ and high fructose diet allows in relatively short period induce the development of type 2 diabetes in rats. It is concluded that the modeling of diabetes by STZ injection are widely demand for the optimization screening of biologically active substances with antidiabetic action in experiments in vivo and is a step before their clinical trials in the composition of specialized preventive and therapeutic products.
Functional food in pregnancy
The current state of the functional food usage in clinical guidance of pregnant females with the alimentary deficiency of essential nutrients was conducted in the review. The clinical effects of the use of various functional food products were discussed. The instances of the additive interaction of nutrients used for food fortification were depicted. The issues of the methodology of selecting food products for the diet correction were reviewed. The international experience of the development of fortification schemes for basic food products was analyzed. The especial attention was dedicated to the problem of iron deficiency in pregnant females. There were urged the issues of clinical epidemiology of iron deficiency states amongst females offertile age, the pathophysiology of sideropenic syndrome, its associations with other nosologies. There was demonstrated that the correction of iron deficiency amongst pregnant females suffering from iron deficiency anemia should be differentiated accordingly to the anemia severity. For mild severity of iron deficiency the diet correction of iron consumption should be conducted with the administration of vitamin-mineral complexes containing not less than 60 mg organic salts of bivalent iron and other antianemic biologically active nutrients in the physiological dosages for pregnancy. The issues of the usage of food fortified with probiotics, food fiber, calcium, iodine and prebiotics were discussed. There were conversed the safety issues of the usage of functional food in pregnant females. There was argued that the practical application of the concept of functional food could be helpful for the correction of the present alimentary deficiency since early terms of gestation as well as reduce the risk of pregnancy and childbirth complications significantly. The selection of the optimal strategies of diet correction depends on the clinical epidemiology of alimentary deficiency and could be realized at the individual as well as at the population level.
Hygiene of nutrition
The investigation the combined effect of SNP rs9939609 (gene FTO) and rs4994 (gene ADRB3) polymorphisms on risk of obesity
The genetic factor plays a significant role in the development of obesity, by present time the association of hundreds genetic polymorphisms with the risk of this disease is established. However, the combined influence of genetic polymorphisms remains practically unstudied. We aimed to investigate the combined effect SNP rs9939609 (gene FTO) and rs4994 (gene ADRB3) polymorphisms on risk of obesity. A case-control study was conducted, including255 obese case (BMI>30 kg/m2) and 427 non obese controls (BMI<30 kg/m2). Genotyping was performed using allele-specific amplification, detection results in real time using TaqMan-probes complementary DNA polymorphic sites. It has been shown, that presence of one mutant allele of rs9939609 (gene FTO) and rs4994 (gene ADRB3) leads to statistically significant association with obesity. Presence of two mutant alleles in different polymorphic variants increases risk of obesity by 15%, presence of three mutant alleles - by 2.63 fold. The quantity surveyed, suffering obesity, increased depending on the number of mutant alleles in studied genetic polymorphisms. Presence of one or two mutant alleles in one polymorphic variant increased the number of patients with obesity by 13.4%, presence of two or three mutant alleles in different polymorphic variants -by 18-19%.
Nutritional status of patients with different types of gastroesophageal reflux disease
The aim of the study was to assess dietary intake in patients with erosive (ERD) and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). One hundred and sixty seven patients (103 women and 64 men, mean age 47±13,6 years) were divided according to symptoms and endoscopic findings into three groups: 88 patients with NERD, 38 patients with ERD and 41 healthy controls. Symptoms were scored by validated GERDQ questionnaire, dietary intake was assessed by validated food questionnaire and 24-h pH/impedance monitoring was used for confirmation of pathological reflux. All groups were homogenous by age and sex, both NERD and ERD patients demonstrated higher BMI (28.1±6.5 vs 28.4±6.1 kg/m2) in compare to the patients from control group (24.3±2.8 kg/m2). Average daily calorie intake was higher in patients with NERD and ERD (2579±854 vs 2467±710 kcal/day) in compare to the control group (2093±696 kcal/day) due to increased consumption of fat (121±52 vs 112±52 g/day) and carbohydrates (244±88 vs 216±64 g/day) consequently. Consumption of dietary fiber was low in all groups in compare to recommended daily allowance, but even lower in NERD and ERD patients in compare to control (6.0±3.8 g/day vs 5.2±4.8 g/day vs 9.45±5.6 g/day). There was direct correlation between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and average energy consumption (R=0.23, p<0.05) and daily total fat consumption (R=0.21, p<0.05), but inverse correlation with consumption of dietary fiber (R=-0.23, p<0.05). Consumption of alcohol was higher in NERD patients in compare with ERD patients and control group (1.2±4.9 vs 0.2±2.6 vs 0±0.87 g/day), but generally it was low. Total daily number of refluxes as well as number of acid refluxes were highly correlated with daily consumption of energy (R=0.35, p<0.05; R=0.35, p<0.05), fat (R=0.33, p<0.05; R=0.32, p<0.05) and protein (R=0.3, p<0.05; R=0.25, p<0.05), however inverse correlation was found between total number of refluxes and consumption of fibers (R=-0.22, p<0.05). There was no correlation between consumption of carbohydrates or alcohol and total number of refluxes or acid refluxes. In conclusion, GERD is associated with higher BMI, increased consumption of calories and fat and low consumption of dietary fiber. Total number of refluxes is related to consumption of fat and fibers. No association with consumption of carbohydrates or alcohol was found. These findings need to be taken in account for prescription of diet to GERD patients.
Promising source of micronutrients for specialized foods with modified carbohydrate profile: traditional medicine experience
Worldwide experience of Traditional medicine (TM) has been successfully applied to the development of modern standardized herbal medicines. Mainly researchers are guided by local sources of medicinal plants and traditional medical systems. TM experience is also used in the search of plants considered as sources of biologically active substances (BAS) and food ingredients. The steady increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes, makes clear the need for research of domestic plant sources of BAS (with a proven carbohydrate metabolism effect) to create modern specialized foods. This article proves the feasibility of using TM experience of Russia and some neighboring European countries (Belarus, Ukraine) to develop optimized compositions for specialized food products for patients with type 2 diabetes. For reliable identification of the most promising plants, 550 traditional antidiabetic herbal formulations of 66 traditional recipe directories were studied in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. It revealed 37 species of plants included to more than 20% of all bibliographical sources, and 13 plants included to more than 50% of prescription directories. The 3 most popular are bilberry leaves, leaffruit of common bean, great nettle leaves.
Micronutrients in nutrition
Vitamin status of citizens from Moscow Region
Evaluation of vitamin status in healthy individuals (68 men and 70 women) aged from 18 to 60 years (median - 37 years), residents of Moscow and the Moscow region has been performed by means of determination of vitamin C, A, E, B2, B12 and folic acid level in blood serum. The nutrition was investigated by questionnaire method on frequency of food consumption. Both diet of men and women had excessive fat content (41.7 and 42.7% of total calories), saturated fatty acids (14.1 and 13.6%), added sugars (11.1 and 11.0%), sodium, and had lack of dietary fiber (2.5-fold reduced level comparing with RDA). Daily intake of vitamin B1 was 1.37±0.04 mg for men and 1.06±0.07 mg for women, vitamin B2 - respectively 1.72±0.06 and 1.62±0.07 mg, niacin - 18.5±0.72 and 14.8±0.88 mg and did not reach the optimal level. All persons were sufficiently supplied with vitamins A, C, E and B12: mean and median of blood serum level of retinol, tocopherols, ascorbic acid and cobalamins were in the range of optimum values. The lack of vitamins A and B12 has not been found in any person. The frequency of vitamin C and E insufficiency was insignificant and amounted to 2 and 8% respectively. The lack of vitamin B2, and β-carotene was most pronounced and took place in about a half of individuals. Only 34% of healthy people of working age were sufficiently supplied with all vitamins. A combined lack of two vitamins was detected in 26%, of three vitamins - in 8%. Women were better supplied with riboflavin and β-carotene. The blood serum level of β-carotene and vitamin E was significantly higher in individuals older than 30 years compared with persons of younger age. Individuals with overweight or obesity were worse supplied with β-carotene and folate. A negative correlation was detected between the levels of serum folate and homocysteine concentration (r=-0.262, p<0.05). A positive correlation has been revealed between the concentration of folic acid and the level of HDL-C (r=0.356, p<0.01), and iron (r=0.378, p<0.05).
Assessment of the using effectiveness of iodine containing additives in development of meat products for child nutrition
The effectiveness of iodine containing additives on the basis of whey protein and milk protein casein compared to iodized salt in the composition of meat minced semi-finished products for child nutrition was examined in the experiment on laboratory animals. Four variants of the semi-finished products were investigated: 1 - control; 2 - enriched with iodine containing milk protein casein; 3 - enriched with iodine containing whey proteins; 4 - enriched with iodized salt. The semi-finished products were enriched at the level of 15% of the daily norm of iodine requirement for children at the age of 7-12 years. Iodine content in 100 g of product was 20 μkg. Rats (initial body weight 140±20 g, n=80) were divided into five groups (control, intact and three experimental groups). Groups 1 and 5 included the animals fed with a standard vivarium diet throughout the experiment. The rats from groups 2-4 were fed with the iodine enriched diet: group 2 received diet containing semi-finished products No. 2; group 3 sample No. 3 and group 4 - sample No. 4. The first stage of the experiment was aimed at accumulation of iodine in tissues and organs of animals consumed the tested iodine containing additives in the composition of semi-finished products. The second stage of the experiment consisted in simulation of the mercazolilum-induced (50 mg/kg b.w.) hypothyroidism (iodine deficiency) and detection of preventive effects of iodine containing meat semi-finished products in a model of experimental hypothyroidism in rats. The data obtained upon the end of the experiment suggest that the highest effect for correction of iodine deficiency was achieved when using the culinary products enriched with iodine containing whey proteins (sample No. 3): the level of thyroxine (T4) was restored by 98.7% in the animals from group 3 compared to the indices of the intact group, Т3 by 100%, TSH - by 89.3%. This effect was confirmed by the hematological and biochemical blood indexes, as well as the dynamics of their weight change: the level of white blood cells was significantly lower by 28%, granulocytes by 44%, monocytes by 42% compared to control rats; the weight gain of the animals of the 3 group was 20.3%, closer to that of intact animals - 26.4%, while in the control group it was 2.6 %.
Nutrition value of wild-growing fruits from mountain Dagestan and its safety after fast freezing and cold storage
Results of research of mineral composition, content of vitamin C and P, titrable acids, pectinaceous and phenol substances in fresh, fast-frozen (t=-30 °C), and also stored within 3 and 9 months (t=-18 °C) fruits of wild-growing blackberry, cornel, medlar and sea-buckthorn are presented in article. Determination of mineral composition was carried out by flame atomic absorption photometry, vitamin C and pectinaceous substances -by titirimetric methods, phenolic substances and vitamin P - by colorimetric methods. Vitamin C content was minimal in fresh fruits of cornel (6.9±0.3 mg%), amounted to 21.7-32.0 mg% in the fruits of blackberries and medlar and reached 180.1±7.2 mg% in the fruit of sea-buckthorn. Vitamin P concentration ranged from 34.9 (sea-buckthorn) to 180.0 mg% (cornel). Berries of a cornel contained also the greatest number of titrable acids (33.2±1.3 g/dm3), phenolic compounds (243.0±4.8 mg%) and pectinaceous substances (2.91±0.08%). The most significant content of potassium (521±15.6 mg%), calcium (133.2±5.2 mg%), magnesium (62.4±2.5 mg%) and iron (2.81±0.05 mg%) was revealed in medlar fruits. Consumption of 100 g of the studied fruits provides daily requirements of a human body, depending on a species of wild plants: in calcium -for 2-13.3%, potassium - for 7.0-20.8%, magnesium - for 8.1-15.6%, iron - for 5.9-19.2% and in vitamin C - from 5.8-24.6 to 145.7% in the case of sea buckthorn. The applied processing method of conservation - fast freezing (t=-30 °С) of fruits and their long storage (t=-18 °С) is the effective way ensuring high safety of nutrients in them. In the studied berries after 9-months cold storage the safety of vitamin C varied ranging from 55.7 (blackberry) to 76.1% (cornel), and vitamin P - from 81.9 (sea-buckthorn) to 92.8% (cornel). Stability of titrable acids, except for medlar fruits, varied from 84.2% (blackberry) to 94.0% (sea-buckthorn). The safety of phenolic and pectinaceous compounds by the end of 9 months of storage, has averaged 90.6 and 95.6% respectively in comparison with their initial quantity in fresh fruits. The mineral composition was the stablest. After completion of experiment the safety of mineral substances in fruits of wild plants fluctuated from 94.6 to 98.5%. Distinctions in change of biochemical complexes of berries of blackberry, cornel, medlar and sea-buckthorn at fast freezing (t=-30 °С) and storage (t=-18 °С), apparently, are caused by specific features, content of free and bound water, thickness of cellular walls, durability of a thin skin of fruits, as well as by concentration of the components that inhibit the destructive processes occurring at the cellular and molecular level.
New food products
The use of the antioxidant drink by healthy workers exposed to chemical factors
In chemical manufacturing along with alimentary factors, workers are exposed to occupational hazards resulting in reduced antitoxic protective properties of the organism. The purpose of the present work was to develop a preventive method for reducing antitoxic functions of the body of healthy workers exposed to chemical factors. We have produced the drink containing carrot juice, honey, olive oil. The study involved 50 employees (the average age was 37.4±5.5 years) with experience of over 15 years. The main group (25 people) were workers with reduced antitoxic function who received the drink before each day's work shift for 10 days, the control group - workers with normal anti-toxic function, which did not take a drink. It was found that antioxidant drink intake by healthy employees of a chemical complex lead to the decrease of the level of molecules of average mass at λ=254 nm and at λ=280 nm by 15.1±7.2%, the activity of gammaglutamyl transferase - by 19.1%, alaninaminotransferase - by 44.1%, aspartataminotrans-ferase - by 34.7% (indicators of the syndrome of endogenous intoxication), the decrease of the content of malondialdehyde (as an indicator of an excessive accumulation of products of lipid peroxidation) - by 43.8%, while the activity of catalase, that indicates an increase in the antitoxic functions of the organism, increased by 37.5%.
About food fortification with vitamins
Criticism of attempts to enrich foods (mainly dairy products) with vitamins by adding mashed or concentrates of fresh berries and vegetables has been reviewed. Concept "enriched (fortified) product" has been considered. It has been shown that the addition of fruits and vegetables, which are a source of vitamin C, does not increase the content of B vitamins to a level that meets the criteria for fortified foods. The differences in the regulations concerning to the degree of enrichment of foods are discussed. Development of specific educational programs to increase knowledge about vitamins is required not only for the population but also for scientific and medical professionals. Keywords: enriched with vitamins (fortified) product, fresh berries, vegetables
Food quality control and safety
Method of determination organic iodine (iodotyrosines) in food
It is important to control the substances of the synthesis of biologically active supplements, based on organic forms of iodine (iodotyrosines). But it is no less important to control the content of iodotyrosines in foods. The developed method is sensitive and selective and can determine iodotyrosines with a lower limit of detection (1 ppb). Iodotyrosines have been determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The article contains parameters for chromatographic separation of 3-iodo-L-tyrosine and 3.5-diiodo-L-tyrosine and parameters of the electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, describes the methodology of sample preparation and solid phase extraction. The article substantiates the use of mass spectrometry as the most sensitive and selective method for determining the organic iodine as compared to HPLC with UV detection. The enzymatic hydrolysis with proteolytic enzymes has been used for sample preparation in iodothyronine analyses. Solid phase extraction was performed using C18 cartridge. For HPLC-MS/MS analysis iodothyronine derivatives were obtained with a mixture of butanol-acetyl chloride. Degree of iodotyrosine extraction from the matrix of the foodstuffs was not less than 85%, the correlation coefficient of the calibration curve in the concentration range of 1-2000 ng/mL was 0.999, reliable determination of iodine content in foods in the range from 10 to 20 000 mcg/kg.