Transisomers of fatty acids: health risks and ways to reduce consumption
The review presents the analysis of data to assess the health effects of various trans fatty acids. The analysis of the scientific literature indicates that a biological effect is dependent on the type of trans fatty acid. Based on the presented analysis it is shown that the introduction of hygienic rationing content of trans fatty acids (TFAs) should be differentiated according to which of TFAs should be considered to be hazardous to humans. The review presents data justifying the exclusion of some TFAs (rumenic and vaccenic acid) from the total combined content of trans fatty acids while limiting their consumption. These acids are proven to be attributed to functional food factors preventing the risk of various diseases. Rumenic acid and 10-trans-12-cis-octadecadienoic acid may also be used in drug therapy. Due to the positive biological activity of the two isomers of octadecadienoic acid with conjugated bonds, TFAs with conjugated bonds were excluded from the definition of TFAs adopted the Codex Alimentarius Commission and used in official documents of a number of countries. Overview material presented in the article confirms the thesis that the ban on the content of TFAs, or limitation on the legislative level, is a more effective method compared to mandatory labeling. Conducting a valuation of TFAs contents of certain substances is justified from the point of view of analytical chemistry, since the practice of monitoring implemented a method to determine the individual ENG 28 one, two and three double bonds. The article also discussed the various methods for reducing the content of TFAs in food products.
Physiology and biochemistry nutrition
Effect of rutin and hesperidin on the expression of Nrf2 gene and the activity of hemoxygenase-1 and NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase at their separate and combined action
Flavonoids rutin (R) and hesperidin (Hes) have a broad spectrum of the biological activity based on their antiradical properties and ability to increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes, including the activity of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase (QR). It is supposed that the main regulator of the activity of HO-1 and QR is the transcription factor Nrf2. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of R and Hes on the expression of Nrf2 gene and protein, on the activity and mRNA and protein expression of HO-1 and QR at their separate and combined action. Administration in diet of male Wistar rats (with initial body weight 180–200 g) R (400 mg/kg b.w.) and Hes (400 mg/kg b.w.) during 14 days separately or in combination had no toxic or pro-oxidant effect, which were assessed by the level of liver MDA, hydroperoxides of lipids, reduced and oxidized glutathione. R and, to a lesser extent, Hes caused increased activity of HO-1 and QR. Their combined effect on the activity of HO-1 did not differ from the separate effect of each flavonoid. The combined action of R and Hes on the activity of QR was additive. According to Western blotting, changes in HO-1, Nrf2 and QR protein levels under the action of R and Hes separately or in combination were not statistically significant. The results of real time PCR demonstrated the presence of small, but statistically significant, changes in the level of expression of the genes Nrf2 (Nrf2), HO-1 (Hmox1) and QR (NQO1) both for separate and combined action of R and Hes. Thus, the obtained results showed that high-dose of R and Hes separately and in combination didn’t significantly affect the gene and protein expression of transcription factor Nrf2 and that the increased activity of HO-1 and QR was not associated with the increased expression of Hmox1 and NQO1 genes.
Hygiene of nutrition
Toxicological evaluation of colloidal nano-sized silver stabilized polyvinylpyrrolidone. IV. Influence on intestinal microbiota, immune indexes
Nano-sized colloidal silver (NCS) stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) containing nanoparticles (NPs) of silver with a diameter of 10–80 nm was administered to growing male rats (body weight 80±10 g) during the first 30 days by intragastric gavage and then for 62 days with diet consumed in doses of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg/kg of body weight per day based on silver (Ag). The control animals received deionized water and PVP. The composition of microbiota from the cecum was studied using standard microbiological methods with determination of the main and transient components, together with antagonistic activity of symbiotic bifidobacteria. Expression of antigens CD45RA, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD161a on lymphocytes (Ly) of peripheral blood was determined by flow cytometry; blood serum levels of cytokines IL10, IL13, TNFα were examined by ELISA. It was shown that subacute administration of colloidal Ag in all studied doses did not lead to significant changes in the composition of the main components of normal microbiota, providing, however, the inhibitory effect on the growth of some transitory components probably including opportunistic species of microorganisms. Among the studied immunological parameters decreased amount of B-Ly was noticed at the highest dose of the NCS, while changes in the other parameters of the immune system were depended ambiguously on the dose of the product. The results were analyzed in conjunction with the data of previous publications concerning the impact on the NCS on integrated, morphological, hematological, biochemical and enzymological indexes of animals in the 92-day experiment. It was concluded that significant symptoms of NCS sub-acute oral toxicity manifested starting from a dose of 1 mg/kg body weight of Ag, and the maximum not observed adverse effect dose (NOAEL) can be estimated as 0.1 mg/kg body weight.
Characteristics of oxidative metabolism parameters at acute intoxication induced by surrogate alcohol
The aim of this study was to estimate the oxidative metabolism parameters in blood of patients with acute intoxication of different severity induced by surrogate alcohol. The study involved 30 people (26–40 years old) with a diagnosis of acute intoxication induced by surrogate alcohol. Two groups of patients were formed. 1st group included 10 patients with moderate intoxication (the ethanol concentration in blood – 2.5–3.5 g/l); 2nd group included 20 patients with severe intoxication (blood ethanol concentration – 3.5–5.0 g/l). The control group included 15 persons without history of alcohol abuse. In blood plasma the levels of carbonyl protein products, dityrosine containing cross-linked products of oxidized proteins and malondialdehyde were detected. In erythrocytes the concentrations of reactive carbonyl protein products and membrane-binding hemoglobin were detected. Additionally the indicators of clinical chemistry (activity of transaminases, total bilirubin, creatinine, urea, total protein) in blood were detected. The data were processed using the EXCEL statistical software package (Mann-Whitney test). In blood plasma of 1st group patients malondialdehyde and oxidized proteins concentrations were higher in comparison with control ones by 40.4 (р<0.05) and 28.4%, respectively. In blood plasma of 2nd group patients those indicators were higher in comparison with control ones by 60.6 (р<0.05) and 95.2% (р<0.01). The significant decreasing of carbonyl protein products was fixed in blood plasma of both groups of patients compared with the control persons. In erythrocytes of patients the significant increasing of carbonyl protein products were fixed by 103.4 (р<0.05) and 95.8% (р<0.05) respectively compared with the control ones. Changing of oxidative stress indicators in blood took place earlier than the augmentation of clinical chemistry indicators. Our findings emphasized the involving of the different types of oxidized proteins in patterns of the alcohol surrogates implementing mechanisms.
The study of energy balance in individuals with the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the β 3-adrenoreceptor gene
The study involved 104 people living in the Moscow region, including 18 men and 86 women aged 18 to 67 years. Genotyping of rs4994 ADRB3 polymorphisms was performed using allele-specific amplification, with result detection in real time and using TaqMan-probes complementary to polymorphic DNA regions. The frequency of the mutant allele in individuals was 8.0%, while the Trp64Trp genotype was detected in 84.0% of cases, Trp64Ar – in 16.0%, AA – in 19.0%. Compared with men with genotype Trp64Trp, the men with the Trp64Ar polymorphisms (rs4994) of ADRB3 gene had significantly lower energy expenditure at rest value, calculated per kg of body muscle mass that was associated with higher fat mass, levels of blood serum leptin and LDL cholesterol. The data obtained suggested that leptin could be a possible intermediary contributing to the association between the rs4994 polymorphism of ADRB3 gene and energy disbalance.
Group preventive consulting influence on body mass correction and nutrition disorders. 5-year prospective survey
The aim of the work was to analyze education technologies efficacy using group methods of prevention (body mass correction school) in patients with overweight and obesity, living in Extreme North, according to a 5-year prospective survey. 181 Extreme North alien inhabitants have been investigated (23.2% men, 76.8% women) with overweight and obesity. 144 of them were surveyed during 5 years. Age median was 37 (29–49) years, including men – 33 (29–43) and women – 39.5 (27.5–48) (p=0.123). All participants were divided into 2 groups depending on preventive group education compliance. Group 1 received brief recommendations for the inspection, Group 2 was trained with the group of preventive counseling. Within 3 months of surveillance target body mass reduction was achieved by 11.3% of patients of the group 1 and 31.5% of patients of the group 2 (p=0.0018). By the end of the first year these parameters proved to be 7% and 16.4% (p=0.0453). After that there was no significant difference between groups, although about 5–6% of responders kept the achieved target of BM reduction even in group 1. Group prevention consulting is associated with short time reduction of such risk factors prevalence as low physical activity (from 86.3 to 61.1% during 3 months, p<0.005), insufficient fruits and vegetables consumption and violation of macro- and micronutrient composition of the daily diet. It is also accompanied with lower cumulative proportion of patients without all metabolic syndrome components (Cox’s F-Test: F=2.61; p=0.0178) and a significant reduction of percent of patients having SCORE-risk >5% (p=0.0461) after 5 years of surveillance. Thus, group preventive consulting raises awareness of patients about their health status, leads to daily meal ratio impairment reduction, decreases prevalence of obesity and low physical activity in short time period and reduces MS – risk. During 3 months after consulting body mass reduction (of 5% or more) was observed in 30% of patients. Achieved result is stable within following 12 months in less than 16% of patients. In the longer term, education is accompanied by a decrease in MS risk and some reduction in SCORE-risk.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in moscow pregnant women and principles of alimentary correction of these conditions
The aim was to study the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Moscow pregnant women, as well as to conduct a comparative study of normal and excessive women`s body weight influence on the course and outcome of pregnancy and delivery, anthropometric indices and state of newborn`s health, to assess women’s dietary intake and to develop approaches to nutritional correction of overweight and obesity in pregnant women. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among pregnant women in Moscow in 2009–2011 was 8.3% of the total number of pregnant women observed. The average weight gain during pregnancy in women with overweight and obesity amounted to 13.8±5.2 kg, that was higher then the weight gain in women with normal body weight (11.7±4.5 kg). In women with overweight and obesity there was an increased risk of complications during pregnancy (preeclampsia, anemia), delivery (more frequent operational, premature and delayed delivery), as well as 2–3 times more frequent birth of children with significantly enhanced birthweight, including macrosomia. A study of dietary intake of women surveyed showed a deviation of diets of pregnant women with overweight and obesity from the physiological standards, which is the increase of fat and saturated fatty acids by 25%, reduced carbohydrate content up to 30%, and the reduction in the diet of women of some micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin A, β-carotene). The main principles of nutritional correction of diets of pregnant women who are overweight and obese have been presented as well as recommended set of products and exemplary diet for this category of women.
Assessment of vitamin status of the workers of Samara thermal power plant according to data on vitamin intake and their levels in blood
Sufficiency of 58 employees of a thermal power plant (47 men and 11 women aged 21 to 64 years, body mass index – 27.0±5.8 kg/m2), with vitamins A, E, D, B6, B12, folic acid and carotenoids (content in the blood plasma) and vitamin C (urinary excretion) was conducted in winter (February 2015). All surveyed workers were sufficiently supplied with vitamins A, B6, B12 and folic acid (a reduced level was detected in 0–9%). Insufficient supplying with vitamin E had 19% of the workers (and only men), vitamin C – 44%, vitamin D – 61%, carotenoids – 93%. Only 5% persons were sufficiently provided with all 6 vitamins. A combined deficiency of two vitamins had 38% of them, three – 22%, four – 16%. Simultaneously reduced plasma level of two antioxidants was observed in 36% of subjects, three – in 12%. Significant positive correlation (p<0.05) was detected between plasma levels: total cholesterol and retinol and β-carotene; tocopherol and total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; between the concentration of vitamin D, and high density lipoproteins; levels of retinol and tocopherol and β-carotene. In parallel intake of vitamins C, A, B1, B2 and niacin has been assessed by calculation of the frequency of food consumption during the previous month. Reduced relatively recommended daily intake of vitamins A, C has been found in approximately half of the surveyed, niacin, vitamin B1 and B2 – in 70–80%. Comparison of the data on the availability of vitamins C and A, obtained by calculation of vitamin intake and biochemical methods gave identical results in 55 and 60% of cases, correspondingly. The lack of vitamins has been detected more frequently by assessing dietary intake.
Control of highly toxic N-nitrosamines (N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosodiethylamine) content in baby’s cereals
This paper proposes gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry method for determination of N-nitrosamines (N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosodiethylamine) in dry baby cereals (milk and milk-free). According to the results of the experimental studies, the method of sample preparation has been substantiated. This is the method of distillation with superheated steam, concentration of distillate on cartridges of automatic system of solid phase extraction. Optimal conditions for chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis has been selected (GC/MS). Analysis of the cereals (milk and milkfree) on the content of N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosodiethylamine in concentration range 0.0055–0.0109 mg/kg allowed to determine high content of the determined components by the sum of N-nitrosamines in cereals’ samples of different manufacturers: oatmeal with milk, buckwheat with milk, oatmeal with milk and banana, milk-free maize cereal. In the multigrain milk cereal and buckwheat with milk, peaches and apricots the content N-nitrosamines was not detected (0.0004–0.00066 mg/kg). To confirm the presence of N-nitrosamines identified in a sample of oatmeal with milk, the identification in SCAN mode has been performed. Mass-spectrum of N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosodiethylamine in examined samples were compared with massspectrums that were included in library bank of mass-spectral data NIST 08.L.
Buffer capacity of infant formulas diluted with different types of water
Artificial feeding of infants under 1 year old deserves a special attention. It is generally accepted that the infant formula is approximated to the human milk and adapted to the infantile digestive system. Important properties of breast milk are pH and acid-based buffer capacity. According to this fact, the results of the experimental determination of pH and buffer properties of fresh, fermented, and anti-reflux infant formulas, diluted with water of different pH, have been presented. It was found that reconstituted fermented infant formulas has one unit pH less than the antireflux and fresh mixtures. When restoring infant formula with waters of different alkalinity, pH value changed slightly. Thus, pH of fresh and antireflux mixtures varied in the range 6.67±0.76, of fermented milk mixtures – 5.75±0.55. The buffer capacity with respect to acid of infant formulas play an important role in the nutrition of the child. It depends on the proteins (having different amino acid composition) comprising the milk mixture, and on the type of water, which is used for restoring. Restored infant formulas having a greater buffer capacity for acid can reduce infant gastric acidity. Six of submitted infant formula reconstituted with children bottled water “Nutrilak AQUA”, “HiPP” and “Arhyzik” observed the lowest values of the buffer capacity (9.00±3.00 mmol/l). The larger value of the buffer capacity by acid (>12.00 mmol/l)) was observed in formulas reconstituted with boiled tap water and children bottled water “Agusha” and “FrutoNyanya”.
Micronutrients in nutrition
The estimation of selen content in blood serum and the diet correction in patients with acute Q-wave myocardial infarction
The use of selenium-containing specialized food products in prophylactic and therapeutic diets is based on hypothesis that selenium as antioxidant can potentially decrease the risk of oxidative stress induced diseases. There is a hypothesis, which is strongly supported during last 10–15 years that the reactive oxygen species are generated during ischemic myocardium reperfusion and cardiomyocyte damage. In addition selenium as an important component of glutationperoxidaze, it promotes protection against ischemic damage, improvement of functional regeneration and reduction of morphological changes in cardiomyocytes. We established a low serum selenium level in patients with acute and subacute stage of Q-wave myocardial infarction (75.5±1.8 mcg/L). New dietary product – jam made of seaweed with dried apricot enriched with selenium – was included in patient diet. We observed 72 persons (40–75 years old) who were randomized in a control group (30 patients) on standard treatment and a main group (42 patients) that received the dietary product (80 mcg Se) in addition to the standard treatment. Critical serum selenium level was found initially in 16 main group patients (38%), in 2 patients (7%) 2 weeks later and in none of patients in a month of dietary jam treatment. Selen concentration in blood serum increased from basal value 78.3±3.1 mcg/L after 2 weeks of treatment by 16% and after one month of treatment by 20% (p<0.05). In the control group the serum selenium level remained on critical and selenium-deficient levels during a month on standard treatment without dietary compensation. No adverse events were revealed in patients of main group, the investigated product was well tolerated.
Investigation of the mechanism of bivalent iron binding by casein phosphopeptides
The article presents the results of investigations of mechanism of binding (chelation) of iron by casein phosphopeptides (CPPs). Molecular mass distribution of peptides in the form of the aqueous solutions of casein phosphopeptides, obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium caseinate by various proteinases has been studied. The greatest number of low-molecular peptides with molecular weight less than 2.8 kDa has been detected in the trypsin hydrolysate. Peptic and chymotryptic hydrolysates have similar qualitative composition and contain peptides with higher molecular weight. Under chymosin hydrolysis of sodium caseinate, mainly peptides with high molecular weight were formed, and fragments with molecular weight less than 2.8 kDa were not detected. In the study of chelating ability of CPPs it has been found that the maximum amount of iron was bound by peptide fraction of trypsin hydrolysate. Iron content in peptide complexes of trypsin hydrolysate was 18.8 mg/g of protein, and in those of himotrypsin hydrolysate and pepsin hydrolysate – 13.2 and 11.3 mg/g protein, respectively. It was noted that with increasing doses of iron, the degree of chelation of this micronutrient in all hydrolysates reduced. Chromatographic studies have shown that more than 70% of chelated iron in pepsin and trypsin hydrolysates, was found in peptide fractions with a molecular weight of 0.5–1.4 kDa and only 30% in fractions with a molecular weight of 1.4–4.5 kDa. Amino acid profiles of CPPs peptides have been studied in trypsin hydrolysate by using mass-spectroscopy. It was found that after the interaction of amino acids with iron the value of molecular ion peaks on the plots -Val-Ser-Ser-Glu-Glu-, and -Ala-Glu-Ser-Ser-Ser-GluGlu- increased by 15–25%, indicating the binding of these amino acids with the metal. The data obtained showed that most of the iron was associated with low molecular weight fraction of relatively short peptides of molecular weight from 1.4 to 4.5 kDa. It was noted that enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium caseinate by trypsin produced the greatest amount of low molecular weight peptides that bond iron and increased its bioavailability. It should be noted that chelated complexes are easy to penetrate into the cells, freeing the metal exactly where it is needed, protecting it from oxidation and interaction with other elements in the gastrointestinal tract. The results obtained allowed to optimize the nutrient medium and to provide high chelation of iron.
Nutrition of sportsmеn
The influence of fermented dairy whey on morphofunctional indices and physical training of sportsmen
The aim of the study was to examine anthropometry, physical fitness, metabolism at the level of the microcirculation and adaptive processes of the organism as a whole under the inclusion of enzyme-hydrolyzed whey in the diet of 27 weightlifters 17–23 (21.7±2.7) years old, with the level of sports skills of 1 category of up to masters of sports. The body composition was determined by bioimpedance method, functioning of microcirculation system and oxygen transport were determined using the multifunction laser diagnostic complex. For analysis of heart rate variability we used complex “Varicard 2.51”, physical fitness was assessed by generally accepted pedagogical tests. The products inclusion in the diet in the increasing dose of 0.5 to 1.5 g/kg of body weight within 21 days increases physical fitness. The growth of physical efficiency provided change of body composition with slight increase in muscle mass by 2% and decrease in fat component by 3.6% (p<0.05). Increasing muscle mass is the functional stimulus for the revitalization of the microcirculation system for the exchange of nutrients and energy. Under the consumption of serum the intensity of microcirculation increased by 131%, elevating dominance of active mechanisms of modulation of the flow over passive. As a result of intensive diffusion of oxygen from the blood into tissues, the saturation rate of mixed blood reduced by 7.7% and consumption of oxygen by cells of work tissues increased by 23.6%. Assimilation of nutrients and energy, adequate to physical exercises, improved functional capacity of the organism in general and extended its adaptive capacity, as evidenced by the increase of the balance of vegetative regulation of cardiac rhythm.
Biologically active substances in foods
In vitro аntioxidant activity of spices used in human nutrition
Spices are a traditional food ingredient containing phenolic antioxidants and other phytonutrients. 3 kinds of fresh herbs (dill, parsley, basil), 2 kinds of onions, 11 kinds of dried herbs (vanilla fruits, ground cinnamon bark, ground fruit of cardamom, ground ginger, ground turmeric root, nutmeg seeds, ground dried herbs basil, ground dried herbs marjoram, ground dried herbs of thyme, ground black pepper fruit, bay leaf) have been analyzed. Extraction of flavonoids and phenolic compounds from plants was carried out with 50% ethanol, then analyzed for phenolic compounds, flavonoids, antiradical activity by the DPPH method, reducing power by FRAP method, antioxidant activity in a system with linoleic acid. The results indicate a high potential of the dried herbs to block free radicals in the in vitro model experiments due to the presence of phenolic compounds (gallic acid, 900–1100 mg/100 g) compared with fresh herbs (300–400 mg gallic acid/100 g) . The highest antiradical activity among the studied plants has dried marjoram leaf extract (extract concentration required to bind 50% of the DPPH radical solution – 1 mg/ml). Antioxidant properties are most pronounced in the extract of parsley (inhibits oxidation of linoleic acid in the system at 74.6%). By the ability to exhibit the reducing ability against Fe ions, ground ginger extract differed significantly (68.04 mmol Fe2+/1 kg of raw material). Studies in vitro of antioxidant activity of herbs, spices and dried onions showed that these objects contain phenolic groups, flavonoids, in model experiments in vitro have high antiradical, antioxidant and reducing properties. This indicates a possible favorable role in human nutrition of herbs, onions and spices.
Biologically active agents of potential trade brown seaweed of the Far East Region
The content of biologically active substances of various classes in potentially trade brown seaweed of the Far East region of Costaria costata and Undaria pinnatifida has been defined. It has been found that the studied brown seaweed of C. costata and U. pinnatifida have lower content of alginic acid, than Laminaria japonica (24.5–27.2% against 38.1%), but rather high to consider them as perspective potential sources for industrial production of alginic acid and alginates. The content of polysaccharides in U. pinnatifida (4.89±0.22%) 8 fold exceeded the level in C. costata that speaks about higher prospects of receiving a fukoidan from U. pinnatifida. Brown algae have high content of mannitol, and the content in C. costata (12.10±0.48%) is comparable with the level in L. japonica. When studying mineral structure of it is established that the prevailing macrocell for the studied seaweed is potassium, and its contents in U. pinnatifida exceeds that in C. costata for 30% (2.44 against 1.72% dry matter). C. costata and U. pinnatifida was confirmed to contain 16 trace elements, 10 of which are essential, 2 – trace elements with uncertain function, 4 – toxic. These results demonstrated that the dominating metal trace element for algae were iron and manganese, which content in C. costata (0.525±0.024 and 0.084±0.004% dm) exceeded that in U. pinnatifida respectively by 21 and 42%. The content of nickel (5–7 mg% dm), cobalt (1–2 mg% dm), zinc (8–9 mg% dm), titanium (2 mg% dm) and selenium (3–5 mg% dm) in the investigated seaweed differed insignificantly. The copper content in C. costata (12±0.5 mg% dm) was 2 fold higher than in U. pinnatifida and the aluminum content in U. pinnatifida (7±0.3 mg% dm) exceeded that in C. costata by 5.5 fold. Iodine is the most important trace element for the human nutrition, containing in brown seaweed. The examined brown algae defined sufficiently high iodine content, and the content in U. pinnatifida (0.351±0.016% dm) exceeded the level in C. costata (0.280±0.013% dm) by 25%. The content of toxic elements (cadmium, mercury, lead and arsenic) in C. costata and U. pinnatifida didn’t exceed the maximum permissible parameters for algae. The content of vitamin C in C. costata was 26% higher than in U. pinnatifida (18.30±0.87 against 14.58±0.65 mg/% dm). The pigmentary complex was mainly presented by chlorophyll and carotinoids in which the considerable share was occupied by xanthophyll. The chlorophyll content in C. costata (277±13 mg/% dm) exceeded that in U. pinnatifida (204±9 mg/% dm) by 35.8%. The content of carotenoids differed in the studied seaweed by 25%, with excess in C. costata (0.30±0.01 mg/% dm). Thus, C. costata and U. pinnatifida are perspective species of brown seaweed for food and pharmaceutical industries.
Memory of Yuriy Grigor’evich Grigorov