Content
 . 
Hygiene of nutrition

Анализ резистентности к антибиотикам энтеробактерий и энтерококков, выделяемых из пищевых продуктов

Annotation

The isolates from foods were screened for sensitivity to clinically significant antibiotics to assess the actual situation related to the prevalence of the antibiotic-resistant microorganisms in food. The goal of this work was to study the phenotypic characteristics of the antibiotic susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus spp. isolated from the good quality foods, and evaluation of the prevalence of tetracycline resistance in this groups of microbial contaminants. 68 strains of Enterobacteriaceae family and Enterococcus spp. isolated from poultry and livestock meat, pasteurized dairy products, acquired in the retail in the Moscow region, were studied. The disk-diffusion method (DDM) analysis showed a rather high prevalence of bacteria that are resistant and forming resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics: in general 38% of Enterobacteriaceae strains and 40% of Enterococcus spp., isolated from meat products were resistant to tetracycline and doxycycline, and 21 and 33% – from dairy products, respectively; 26% of milk isolates and 54% of meat isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Considering that the tetracyclines is the most frequently used in animal husbandry and veterinary, the incidence and levels of tetracycline resistance were evaluated using tests with higher sensitivity to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), than the DDM. It was shown that among the Enterobacteriaceae strains 26% of ≪dairy≫ isolates and 38% ≪meat≫ isolates were highly resistant to tetracycline (MIC ranged from 8 to 120 mg/kg) and 17–40% – among Enterococcus spp. These data obtained on a small number of samples, however, correspond to the frequency of tetracycline resistant strains detected in animal products in the EU (10–50%). Two multidrug-resistant enterobacteria strains – Klebsiella pneumoniae (farmer cheese) and Escherichia coli (minced turkey) were found among the 46 strains (4.4%), and they were resistant to 8 antibiotics.

Toxicological evaluation of colloidal nano-sized silver stabilized polyvinylpyrrolidone. III. Enzymological, biochemical markers, state of antioxidant defense system

Annotation

Nanosized colloidal silver (NCS) with primary nanoparticles (NPs) size in the range of 10–80 nm in aqueous suspension was administered to rats with initial weight 80±10 g for the first 30 day intragastrically and for lasting 62 days with the diet consumed in doses of 0.1; 1.0 and 10 mg/kg of body weight b.w.) per day based on silver (Ag). The control animals received deionized water and carrier of NPs – aqueous solution of stabilizer polyvinylpyrrolidone. Activity (Vmax) was determined in liver of microsomal mixed function monooxygenase isoforms CYP 1A1, 1A2 and 2B1 against their specific substrates, the activity of liver conjugating enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) in the microsomal fraction and a cytosol, and the overall and non-sedimentable activities of lysosomal hydrolases. In blood plasma there were evaluated malonic dialdehyde, PUFA diene conjugates, in erythrocytes – the activity of antioxidant enzymes. A set of standard biochemical indicators of blood serum was also determined. The studies revealed changes in a number of molecular markers of toxic action. Among them – the increase in the activity of key enzymes I and II stages of detoxification of xenobiotics, indicating its functional overvoltage; reducing the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GP), the total arylsulfatase A and B, β-galactosidase (in the absence of changes in their non-sedimentable activity), levels of uric acid, increased alkaline phosphatase activity. These changes occurred mainly at the dose Ag of 10 mg/kg b.w., except for the GP to which the threshold dose was 1 mg/kg b.w. No significant changes in the studied markers in a dose Ag 0,1 mg/kg b.w. were identified. Possible mechanisms of the toxic action of silver NPs are discussed.

Daily calorie and macronutrient consumption in girls of different somatotypes with different shares of body fat, muscle and bone components

Annotation

211 practically healthy girls, the students of Krasnoyarsk Medical University in the ages of 16 to 20 years, have been examined. We determined their somatotypes (euriplastic, athletic, subathletic and stenoplastic) and body composition (fat, muscle, bone component). Actual nutrition in these subjects was studied by the method of 24-hour nutrition recall involving foodstuffs models. Energy consumption in cohorts with different somatotypes did not differ from one another and ranged from 1880 to 2115 kilocalories per day, that corresponded to normal physiological needs in women of this age with the coefficient of physical activity as 1.4 (students). Only the intake of fat (% of calories) exceeded the performance standards. As for macronutrients, the majority of indicators of nutrient intake did not differ significantly among girls with different somatotype, except for fat intake in girls with athletic and stenoplastic somatotypes (p<0.034) and carbohydrate consumption in the objects with euriplastic and subathletic somatotypes (p<0.046). The most significant of the findings is the absence of veracious differences in daily energy consumption between the cohorts with different somatotypes with statistically considerable differences in both overall dimensions (body mass and length) and the ratios between fat, muscle and bone as somatic components. In general, macronutrient consumption did not show any differences as well. Thus, apart from the energy and macronutrient consumption, definite meaning within the process of the formation of body composition can belong to the characteristics of the changes following nutrition load on lipoid spectrum of blood serum as well as the peculiarities of the distribution of substrate flow among cell metabolic paths, appropriate of definite somatotypes.

Micronutrients in nutrition

Анализ отечественного и международного опыта использования обогащенных витаминами пищевых продуктов

Annotation

Fortification of food products of mass consumption with vitamins is a modern, most cost-effective, efficient and physiological way to improve the vitamin status of the population. Free or voluntary enrichment on the initiative of producers is used in the industrialized countries at low risk for inadequate population intake of micronutrients. Enrichment of products of mass consumption is almost always mandatory, legislative consolidated, while target enrichment of foods intended for different groups can be both mandatory and voluntary. The criteria for the effectiveness of mandatory food fortification are an increase of certain vitamin consumption, reduce of the relative number of people with inadequate intake of certain micronutrients, improvement of micronutrient sufficiency (blood level), enhancement of biomarkers of some alimentary diseases, reduction of the frequency of congenital defects (neural tube defect). Assessment of risk/benefit ratio indicates safety of mandatory fortification of flour with B vitamins. In Russia, the regulatory framework for food fortification (enrichment levels, forms of vitamins) has been yet laborated. But initiative enrichment, held in Russia, does not give the desired result. An urgent need for legislative mandatory fortification of products consumed by the majority of the population (bread, milk) with B vitamins (the lack of which is the most frequently detected in the population of Russia) arose in a lack of knowledge of the population about the benefits of fortified foods and lack of preference in the selection of such products.

The effects of organic chromium on adipose anatomical parts, using pig as experimental model

Annotation

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of chromium supplements on the quality of protein and lipids of adipose anatomical parts using pig as experimental model for humans. An experiment was conducted on 18 fattening castrated TOPIGS male pigs, for 4 weeks, under experimental farm conditions. The source of Cr(III) was chromium picolinate, a food supplement used in human nutrition, 200 μgCr per kg diet (E1) and 400 μgCr per kg diet (E2). The analytic data showed an improvement of the amino acids profile in belly and in ham samples. A significant decrease of fatty acids concentrations in belly samples was noticed. In conclusion, we observed a positive effect associated with the essential amino acids deposition and decreasing of fatty acids concentrations in tissues with high content of fat, thus in human nutrition, chromium is used as a nutritional supplement most recommended in impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

Influence of the concentrate of red wine polyphenols on glutamate neurotoxicity

Annotation

The purpose of the work was to assess the influence of the concentrate of red table wine Saperavi on the cultivated nerve cells exposed to glutamate. The selection of Saperavi as the source of phenolic compounds was not accidenta: this type of grapes in the Krasnodar region has the highest content of them – up to 4–5 g/dm3 and more. Polyphenol concentrate was prepared by pre-distillation of ethanol using vacuum, evaporation of red table wine with a rotary vaporizer, with the subsequent lyophilic drying. By the methods of voltammetry and chemiluminescence an antioxidant activity, and a quantity of antioxidants in the concentrate have been determined. By HPLC it was established that a large group of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity was present in the concentrate of polyphenols: procyanidins (total concentration up to 425 mg/dm3), quercetin (21.8–32.6 mg/dm3), gallic acid (124.2–164.7 mg/dm3), resveratrol (6.26–13.22 mg/dm3), catechins (1026–1480 mg/dm3). Effect of red wine Saperavi concentrate on glutamate cytotoxicity was studied in the neuron culture of the cerebellum of 7–9-day-old rats. It was shown that the presence of antioxidants reduced the intensity of chemiluminescence in model systems that generate free radicals. It was established that quenching of chemiluminescence in the system ≪citrate-phosphate-luminol≫ composed 68.43%, and in the system of the yolk lipoproteins – 86.36%. The application of concentrate Saperavi significantly increased the survivability of neurons: at the doses 5, 10 and 30 mcg/ml the number of intact neurons was respectively 38.6; 41.5 and 37.1%. The dose 20 mcg/ml was the most effective – the proportion of live neurons comprised 47.4%. The obtained results can be explained by the high antioxidant activity of concentrate flavonoids, including high content of biologically active compounds – catechins, quercetin, rutin, resveratrol. Thus, the consumption of red wine in quantities that exclude harmful effects, can have a positive impact on human health and the brain in particular.

Diet treatment

Assessment of efficiency of the personalized therapy of patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus 2 types appointed on the basis of studying rs5219 polymorphism of KCNJ11 gene

Annotation

The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of personalized therapy for patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM) and obesity based on the study of rs5219 polymorphism of KCNJ11gene. The study involved 120 women with DM and obesity I–II degree. Genotyping was performed in patients using allele-specific amplification with the detection in real time. Depending on the genotype of KCNJ11 gene patients with DM and obesity received different treatment and were divided into 2 groups (40 patients in each): group A (C/T genotype) received standard low-calorie diet + metformin 2000 mg/day and group B (T/T genotype) received a personalized diet + vitamin-mineral complex (VMC) + metformin 2000 mg/day. Results of the study of rs5219 polymorphism of KCNJ11 gene in patients with DM and obesity have shown that 49% of them were carriers of the mutated T allele in the heterozygous form and 37% – in the homozygous variant. It has been found that reducing of calories in a diet promoted weight loss in patients with DM and obesity mainly due to lean body mass in Group A and in Group B – mainly due to the fat component. A significant decrease in blood glucose under complex therapy was observed in both groups. However, after treatment in group B blood glucose levels were significantly lower than in group A. Thus, personalized therapy of patients with DM and obesity should be based on molecular genetic studies that will allow to improve the efficiency of therapeutic measures in these diseases.

Nutritional management of kidney diseases in children

Annotation

The prevalence of various kidney diseases in children remains high in recent decades. Adequate nutrition management can enhance the effectiveness of drug treatment, slow the frequency of relapses and prevent the progression of the disease. The article is devoted to modern approaches to diet therapy in various kidney diseases in children – with the defeat of tubular and glomerular apparatus. For the first time the therapeutic diets for children with various kidney diseases are presented. Particular attention is paid to diet therapy in nephrotic syndrome (steroid-responsive and steroid-refractory). Dietary approaches with modern formulas for enteral nutrition in cases of steroid therapy complications in children with renal insufficiency (in predialysis stage and on dialysis) are described. Differentiated nutritional approaches for patients with different types of crystalluria are separately presented.

Using a multicomponent functional food in IBS patients with constipation: a comparative controlled study

Annotation

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is highly prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder associated with decrease in quality of life and a high social cost. Diet is one of several therapeutic options in IBS treatment; therefore the development and clinical evaluation of innovative functional food for IBS patients are actual. Instant drink containing 4 g inulin, 4 mg menthol and 2 mg of pyridoxine (in daily dose) has been evaluated. 49 patients 18–68 (41.5±16.5) years old fulfilling the Rome III criteria for IBS-C were randomly assigned into two groups: one received standard diet plus two drinks per day for 2 weeks and control group received standard diet. Response to therapy was recorded daily using Likert scale of abdominal pain, bloating and feeling of incomplete bowel emptying, frequency of bowel movement, Bristol stool scale, and quality of life was assessed by IBSQoL questionnaire before and after the treatment. The consumption of the drink with inulin and menthol contributed to a significant positive effect on the stool parameters (from 0.91±0.73 to 1.12±0.45 bowel movements per day in stool frequency, p=0.05, from 2.68±1.63 to 3.43±1.27 index Bristol scale, p=0.05), reduced the severity of abdominal pain (from 1.78±0.58 to 1.47±0.61 Likert scale points, p=0.05), bloating (from 2.22±0.83 to 1.53±0.71 points of Likert scale, p=0.01) and a sense of incomplete bowel emptying (from 2.22±0.88 to 1.61±0.81 points of Likert scale, p=0.001), as well as increased the quality of life (from 75.3±12.0 to 83.3±6.7%, p=0.05), but a significant part of patients (10 of 25) complained the appearance of heartburn after the start of the treatment. In conclusion, the consumption of the functional drink containing inulin, menthol and pyridoxine is associated with improve in stool parameters, abdominal pain, Bristol scale index and increase in quality of life in patients with IBS-C, but produce noticeable heartburn. Changes in functional drink composition are needed to reduce adverse effects.

Methods of food quality control and safety

New international initiatives to create systems of effective risk prediction and food safety

Annotation

Ensuring food safety is one of the most important problems that is directly related to health protection of the population. The problem is particularly relevant on a global scale because of increasing number of food-borne diseases and importance of the health consequence early detection. In accordance with the position of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, food safety concept also includes quality. In this case, creation of the national, supranational and international early warning systems related to the food safety, designed with the purpose to prevent or minimize risks on different stages of the food value chain in various countries, regions and climate zones specific to national nutrition and lifestyle in different groups of population, gains particular importance. The article describes the principles and working examples of international, supranational and national food safety early warning systems. Great importance is given to the hazards of microbial origin – emergent pathogens. Example of the rapid reaction to the appearance of cases, related to the melanin presence in infant formula, are presented. Analysis of the current food safety and quality control system in Russian Federation shows that main improvements are mostly related to the development of the efficient monitoring, diagnostics and rapid alert procedures for food safety on interregional and international levels that will allow to estimate real contamination of food with the most dangerous pathogens, chemical and biological contaminants, and the development of the electronic database and scientifically proved algorithms for food safety and quality management for targeted prevention activities against existing and emerging microbiological and other etiology risks, and public health protection.

On the need to improve the system for the prevention of falsification of food products in the Eurasian Economic Union

Annotation

Adulteration of food is misleading consumers about the composition of foods in order to obtain economic benefits. Olive oil, wine and other alcoholic beverages, spices, tea, fish, honey, milk and dairy products, meat products, cereal products, beverages based on fruit juices, spices, coffee are falsified with the highest frequency. In addition, sufficient data on the frequency of adulterated food products are missing not only in Russia but also in the developed countries. This is because the purpose of the manufacturer and distributors of such products is primarily an economic advantage. Therefore, the majority of incidents of falsification of food products remained undetected since their production, generally had not led to the risk of food safety, and consumers often did not notice the reduction in quality of foodstuffs. The analysis of international data and data of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) has shown that, in order to improve the quality of food products and to reduce sales of adulterated food the following steps should be done: introduce the definition of falsificated food products into legislation of the EAEU; expand the list of methods for confirming the authenticity of the food and detecting the presence of substances which are not permitted for usage in the food industry; consolidate the principle of the responsibility of all participants in the treatment of food that does not comply with the mandatory requirements at the legislative level; introduce the indicators of the quality of foodstuffs in the technical regulations of the EAEU; return to the mandatory requirements for the quality of foods given in the interstate and state standards.

New food products: technology, composition, effectiveness

Bread from the bioactivated wheat grain with the raised nutrition value

Annotation

Bread from the bioactivated grain of wheat differs in high content of dietary fibers, minerals and vitamins compared to traditional types of bread, but, despite this, it has low protein and lysine content. The aim of the study was the development of bread with the raised nutritional value from the bioactivated wheat grain by use of flour from cake of wheat germ (6.5%). It has been established that the flour from wheat germ has protein biological value (774%) and the amino acid score according to lysine (100.3%) above 12 and 40.5%, respectively, compared with those from bioactivated wheat. During calculation of nutritive, biological and energy value of products from the bioactivated wheat grain it is revealed that the biological value of bread from wheat germ flour slightly exceeded the biological value of the bread without its addition and amounted to 70.80%, due to a high protein content and a balanced amino acid composition. The protein content in the test sample of bakery products was 19.0% higher than the control, phosphorus 13.0%, zinc 50.0%.

Anniversary

Kodentsova Vera Mitrofanovna (to the 60th anniversary of the birth)

Annotation

Journals of «GEOTAR-Media»