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Reviews

Modern conceptions about the possible impact of palm oil on human health

Annotation

Review of the scientific literature on the evidence of the relationship between palm oil (PO) and its components and adverse effects on human health, on the mechanisms of cholesterol control and risks for development of cardiovascular diseases. PO is solid or semisolid at room temperature and often is used as a natural substitute for partially hydrogenated vegetable oils containing trans fatty acids which increase risks of hypercholesteremia. PO contains both saturated and unsaturated fats as well as substances with antioxidant activity.

Taking into account the lipid theory of atherosclerosis pathogenesis, and sn-2 hypothesis, PO was compared with other vegetable oils, like olive, sunflower or soybean oils, and did not show great differences in changes of LDL, HDL or total cholesterol levels. Comparison of diets rich in PO with diets rich in trans fatty acids shows improvement of lipid profiles in groups with PO, and serves as a basis for replacement of trans fatty acids in food with PO and its fractions.

In addition to fatty acids content, PO contains several phytonutrients including 4 forms of tocopherols and tocotrienols, carotenoids, sterols, and some others.

Most of these compounds are considered beneficial for human health, mainly on account of their antioxidant activity. It is concluded that PO is safe component of food, when we pay attention to the rather high content of saturated fats in it.

Types of digestion in breast feeding: returning to the problem

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During the breast feeding the hydrolysis of breast milk nutrients in natural conditions provides by milk enzymes, digestive gland secrets and intestinal epitheliocyte as autolytic induced digestion with following including and development of auto-digestion in hydrolysis of milk lipids and proteins. Milk lactose is hydrolyzed as a type of auto-intestinal digestion. Breast glands release enzymes according to a year lactation dynamics. The mechanism of hydrolase recreation from the mother’s blood takes part in milk hydrolase origin.

Physiology and biochemistry nutrition

The study of biochemical mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction in rats’ hepatocytes during experimental hyperhomocysteinemia

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Methionine is an essential proteinogenic amino acid found in many foods. During its metabolism homocysteine is formed. With elevated level of homocysteine in the blood – hyperhomocysteinemia – increased risk of developing certain diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, is associated. There is evidence that the homocysteine is able to reduce the effect of nitric oxide and induce mitochondrial dysfunction. The present study investigates the relationship of the functional state of the liver cells mitochondria and the level of nitric oxide metabolites in them in experimental hyperhomocysteinemia caused by excessive intake of methionine. The experiment was conducted on 17 male Wistar rats with an initial weight of 220–270 g, rats were divided into 2 groups. A 25% suspension of methionine was administered (in a dose of 1.5 g of methionine per kg body weight) two times a day for 21 days intragastrically (by gavage) to rats of the first group (n=9) while instead of drinking water animals received a 1% aqueous solution of methionine. Drinks daily volume of methionine solution was 17.2 [15.5; 18.1] ml. In the experiment 8 animals were used, in which severe hyperhomocysteinemia (> 100 mmol/l) was developed. The second group (n=8) served as a control. These rats were administered suspension base containing no methionine (10% Tween-80, 1% starch, 89% water). The total homocysteine concentration was measured in blood serum by ELISA. In the suspension of liver mitochondria total protein was measured by Lowry method; the concentration of NO metabolites by screening method; succinate dehydrogenase activity – under the reaction of hexacyanoferrate (III) potassium reduction; lactate dehydrogenase activity – by decrease of NADH concentration in the reaction of pyruvate’s reduction; activity of H+-ATPase – by measuring the inorganic phosphate; superoxide dismutase – by inhibition of quercetin auto-oxidation, the level of Ca2+ – by reaction with Arsenazo III. Oxidative modification of proteins was evaluated based on the reaction between carbonyl and imino groups of the amino acid residues oxidized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine to form 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone having a specific absorption spectrum in the ultraviolet and visible regions of the spectrum. During three weeks of the experiment the body weight of rats treated with methionine increased from 246 (229; 262) to 302 (283; 311) g, and of control animals – from 256 (231; 264) to 307 (275; 314) g. The difference in body weight gain was not statistically significant. In the study it was revealed that intragastric administration of the methionine for 3 weeks with the addition of this amino acid in the drinking water caused hyperhomocysteinemia. On the one hand it lead to an intensification of energy metabolism in rat liver mitochondria, resulted in increase of lactate dehydrogenase (by 63.0%), succinate dehydrogenase (by 76.1%) and H+-ATPase (by 62.5%) activities. On the other hand it lead to the disruption of the Ca2+ deposit (Ca2+ level in mitochondria was reduced by 68.2%) and to enhance of mitochondrial protein carbonylation (by 52.2%) with a predominance of the aggregation process and a reduction of the reserve-adaptive capacity, despite an increase in superoxide dismutase activity (by 87.7%). The reason for these changes in the mitochondria can be the decrease in production of nitric oxide (the level of its metabolites decreased by 21.3%).

The study of the relationship between rates of carnitine exchange and fat mass in young swimmers

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The study of the state of carnitine metabolism is an actual problem for the specialists who are interested in the investigating of children’s health, involved in sport. Indicators of carnitine metabolism reflect mitochondrial capacity and the state of energy of the cell, which in it’s turn effect on the level of physical performance of athletes and their health status. The aim of our study was to identify the characteristics of carnitine metabolism in young athletes, as well as the establishment of correlation between carnitine metabolism and body fat mass. The study included 46 young athletes 12–17 years old involved in swimming. The average age of the athletes was 15.9±0.2 years. Carnitine metabolism has been studied by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, the content of body fat mass has been established by bioimpedance. The free carnitine didn’t significantly differ in males (36.3±1.1 mmol/l) and females (36.3±1.3 mmol/l). Content of related carnitine was higher in boys –17.4±0.8 mmol/l (vs 14.0±0.9 mmol/l in girls, p<0.05). Value of related carnitine/free carnitine (AC/C0) was significantly 22.5% higher in boys (0.49±0.03), because of higher content of related carnitine. The content of body fat mass in boys was 9.6±0.87%, and in girls – 22.24±1.0%. There was found a significant correlation between indicators of carnitine metabolism and fat body mass. The findings may suggest a higher mitochondrial potential of girls engaged in swimming.

Dynamics of violations of intravascular platelet activity in rats during the formation of metabolic syndrome using fructose models

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Objective: to trace the development of disorders intravascular platelet activity in experimental form of the metabolic syndrome. The study included 61 rat male Wistar rats at the age of 2.5–3 months. Animals were divided into 2 groups: 32 rats were given free access to drink 10% solution of fructose for 8 weeks and 29 rats were the control group. The level of the total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLD cholesterol) and triglycerides were determined using colorimetric enzymatic method. The blood plasma content of endothelin-1 was determined by radioimmunoassay, thromboxane B2 and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α – by ELISA. The total content of nitrogen oxide metabolites was revealed in blood. Intravascular platelet activity was assessed using phase contrast microscopy. In terms of fructose load in rats simultaneously with the increase of body weight and the development of biochemical disorders that are characteristic for the metabolic syndrome, there comes a marked progressive increase in intravascular platelet activity [reduction of the number of discocytes from 81.0±0.1 to 61.3±0.2%, increase in the number of reactive platelets from 19.0±0.1 to 38.7±0.2%, an increase in the number of freely moving in the blood of small units from 2.4±0.0 to 14.6±0.1 per 100 free platelets, and of medium and large units (from 4 or more cells) from 0.1±0.03 to 2.3±0.06 per 100 free platelets], largely due to the increase (p<0.01) of the synthesis of thromboxane B2 (from 145.9±0.2 to 232.6±0.7 pg/ml), endothelin-1 (from 6.9±0.2 to 12.5±0.4 pg/ml) and reduction (p<0.01) of the generation of 6-ketoprostaglandin F1α (from 75.9±0.2 to 62.3±0.4 pg/ml), and the total amount of nitric oxide metabolites (from 27.9±0.3 to 23.2±0.1 mmol/l).

Hygiene of nutrition

Toxicological evaluation of nanosized colloidal silver, stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone, in 92-day experiment on rats. II. Internal organs morphology

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The aim of the study was to evaluate the safe doses of commercially available nanosized colloidal silver (NCS), stabilized with polyvinilpirrolidone (PVP, food additive E1201) when administered in gastrointestinal tract of rats in the 92-day experiment in terms of the morphological changes in the internals of animals. The sample studied contained nonaggregated nanoparticles (NPs) of silver belonging to size fractions with a diameter of less than 5 nm, 10–20 nm or 50–80 nm. 80% of NPs were inside the range of hydrodynamic diameters 10.6–61.8 nm. The preparation of NCS was administered to growing male Wistar rats (initial body weight 80±10 g) for 1 month by intragastric gavage and then consumed with food at doses of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg/kg of body weight based on silver. The control animals received water or vehicle of nanomaterial – water solution of PVP. After withdrawal of animals from the experiment by exsanguination under ether anesthesia organs (liver, spleen, kidney, ileum) were isolated and their slides were prepared by standard methods following by staining with hematoxylin-eosin. Analysis was performed in light optical microscope equipped with a digital camera at a magnification from 1×100 to 1×1000. It was shown that the experimental animals treated with the NCS developed series of morphological changes in the tissues of the internal organs (liver, spleen and kidney) with the elevation of the range and severity of structural changes with increasing doses of silver. The most sensitive target of NCS action was apparently liver, which has already shown at a dose of 0.1 mg of silver NP/kg of body weight marked eosinophilic infiltration of portal tracts, which was accompanied at doses of 1.0 and 10.0 mg/kg by the emergence of medium and large-drop fat vacuoles in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, swelling and lympho-macrophage infiltration of the portal tracts. Detectable changes can be regarded as symptoms of inflammation of hepatocytes, at least, at a dose nanomaterial of 1.0 mg/kg body weight or more. Relative intensity of morphological changes in the internal organs correlated with published data on the biodistribution of silver NP administered to the gastrointestinal tract. It is concluded that the threshold dose corresponding to the minimum adverse effect of NCS is, according to the study of the above, no more than 1.0 mg/kg of body weight based on silver.

Yogurt consumption and reduced risk of overweight and obesity in adults

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Fermented dairy products comprise a large food group in Russia and are an important source of dietary nutrients like protein, calcium, fat. Obesity is a rising public health issue in Russia. Observing the role of fermented dairy in the maintenance of healthy weights is important. Current study objective was to explore the association between obesity/overweight prevalence and yogurt consumption in Russian adults. Data from RLMS-HSE 1994–2012 was used. Primary mate- rials are available on http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/rlms-hse, http://www.hse.ru/org/hse/rlms. Data collected included dietary intake by single 24h recalls and anthropometric measures for 72.400 adults (19 y.o.). Logistic regression models were used to explore the relationships between yogurt consumption and obesity prevalence (BMI>30.0 compared with 18.5–25.0), controlling for age and gender. Daily average intake (g/day) of yogurt significantly increased from 1994 to 2012. Yogurt consumption decreased over 40 y.o. in both gender. Women yogurt consumption is inversely correlated with the magnitude of the BMI: the consumption of yogurt in women with normal BMI values (>18.5–25.0) was significantly higher than in women who are overweight and/or obese (BMI>25.0; or>30.0). The mean values of BMI in women who ate yogurt, were significantly lower than in women not consuming yogurt. In men, the relationship between consumption of yogurt and BMI is not revealed. Thus, among women, a significant inverse association was observed between yogurt consumption and obesity (OR 0.582, CI 95% 0.497, 0.680; p<0.001). The observed association between yogurt intake and prevalence of obesity is dependent on gender: yogurt is associated with lower obesity prevalence only in women.

The study of influence of stresses on virulence genes expression in foodborne pathogens Сampylobacter jejuni

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The study of the responses to cold exposure in Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) – one of the most common foodborne pathogens is important for elucidating the mechanisms of acquisition of products contaminated with campylobacter, hazardous properties. These data are also necessary to create effective systems of microbiological controls at all stages of production and storage of food. 5 pairs of oligonucleotide primers were selected for detecting of genes cadF, cdtB, ciaB, flaA, iamA, encoding the main factors of pathogenicity of foodborne pathogens Сampylobacter jejuni – adhesion and invasion of epithelial cells, production of CDT-toxin and mobility. To quantify the expression levels of target genes of C. jejuni a comparative method of determining the amount of amplification products of genes encoding pathogenicity factors of Campylobacter spp. has been developed using real-time PCR with intercalating dyes. To calculate and quantify gene expression the mathematical models have been obtained that allow extrapolation of threshold cycles of amplification to the initial number of copies of RNA/DNA in the tested samples. It has been established that exposure of C. jejuni at low temperatures +4 °C did not lead to increased levels of expression of genes cdtB and сiaB. However, in the populations of C. jejuni subjected to freezing, followed by incubation at optimum for the pathogen temperature of +42 °C, the increase in expression of mRNA encoding protein subunit B of CDT-toxin and antigenic marker of invasion took place. The number of copies of RNA in C. jejuni after stress exposure increased by 1.14–2.6 lg in comparison with intact cultures. CdtB and сiaB gene expression in C. jejuni can serve as an indicator of cell response to stress and helps to restore the functions of the bacterial cells after the termination of cold exposure and return of the pathogen in conditions favourable to the realization of its pathogenic potential.

Diet treatment

Phenotypes of food allergy in children

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Questions of food allergy heterogeneity, approaches to allocation of various phenotypes on the basis of clinical signs and immunological markers taking into account an etiology and immune mechanisms of the disease are considered in the article. Allocation of phenotypes contributes the best understanding of essence and it expedient for development of individual approach to diet and therapy.

Micronutrients in nutrition

The complexes of copper, manganese and chromium with enzymatic hydrolysate of pig spleen: research in vitro

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This report describes the preparation and the results of physical and chemical analysis of complexes of enzymatic hydrolysate of pig spleen (EHPS) with manganese, copper and chromium. The complexes were prepared using schemes including the reaction of complexation of inorganic cations with EHPS-peptides structures and application of membrane technology. The process of microfiltration of the resulting mixtures was carried out in tangential flow and low molecular weight fractions were collected. Solutions of copper and manganese complexes with EHPS were subjected to nanofiltration to remove inorganic ions from the reaction mixture. The obtained preparations were lyophilic dried and the molecular weight distribution of the protein fractions in Cu-EHPS, MnEHPS and Cr-EHPS complexes was analyzed by exclusion medium pressure liquid chromatography. The percentage relation of fractions with specific molecular weight range was calculated by applying the weighted integration of chromatograms. The determination of copper, manganese and chromium levels in the complexes was performed by atomic absorption method. The content of microelements in the preparations is for copper 16.5±0.3 mg/g, for manganese – 24.9±0.5 mg/g and for chromium – 2.5±0.2 mg/g.

Enrichment of fruits and berries with selenium and prospects for their using in the preventive nutrition

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The method of producing enriched with selenium berries and fruits has been investigated. The objects of research were plants and berries of edible honeysuckle variety Kingfisher, of garden strawberry variety Korona, of Actinidia kolomikta variety Soroka, the fruits of a field ash variety Sorbinka and the black chokeberry’s fruits variety Chernookaya. Enrichment with the selenium of berries and fruits of these cultures has been performed by the method of single and double foliar treatment of plants with aqueous sodium selenate (concentration of 1. 2 and 3 mg/l) during the formation of fruits and berries. Reprocessing had been performed in 10 days after the first one. It was found out that the use of plants’ re-processing didn’t contribute to greater accumulation of selenium in berries and fruits, according to the single treatment, that’s why it is inefficient. Using enrichment, providing the maximum concentration of selenium in the working solution – 3 mg/l is the most optimal to increase its content in the honeysuckle – by 5.2 fold; in the strawberry – by 3.9 fold; in Actinidia – 3 fold; in the field ash and black chokeberry’s fruits – by 2.7 fold. The content of selenium (μg/100 g) in enriched berries of the honeysuckle was 32.3–35.2; the strawberry – 11.7–13.1; Actinidia kolomikta – 3.5–4.1; the fruits of the field ash ordinary – 4.6–5.1, Aronia – 2.8–3.2. Eating fortified fruit and berries will contribute to the prevention of selenium deficiency in the body. Thus, intake of 100 g honeysuckle’s berries helps cover the daily requirement of selenium in 47.9–60.9%, the strawberry – in 18.0–22.9%, actinidia’ berries, the field ash and black chokeberry’s fruits – in 4.3–8.7%.

Miсronutrient structure of food parts of a trade bivalve mollusc of Anadara broughtoni

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The content of micronutrients in food parts of a bivalve mollusk of the Far East region of Anadara broughtoni has been defined. It is established that in a muscle the prevailing mineral is potassium, in a cloak with a adductor – sodium. In Anadara broughtoni muscle concentration of potassium reaches 490 mg/100 g of crude tissue that is 2–3 fold higher than the content of this element in combs and oysters and 4 fold above, than in a cloak. For sodium inverse relationship is observed: its contents in a cloak (439 mg/100 g) is 3 fold more, than in a muscle. The low content of sodium in an adductor should be noted. For all food parts of a mollusk of Anadara broughtoni the dominating trace elements are iron and zinc. The content of iron is maximum in a muscle (4.84 mg/100 g) and exceeds that in an adductor by 1.84 fold. The content of zinc in food parts differs insignificantly, the maximum contents is defined in a cloak (2.12 mg/100 g), in comparison with an adductor excess makes only 15%. It should be noted the high content of manganese – especially in a cloak (1.12 mg/100 g) – in comparison with an adductor 43.5% more. Chromium content in a muscle (0.018 mg/100 g) exceeds that in an adductor 2.25 times. The high content of copper in a muscle (0.04 mg/100 g) – 4 times old higher than in an adductor is defined. The content of selenium and of iodine is maximum in a muscle (0.03 mg/100 g). For a cloak and a muscle the prevailing class of lipids are phospholipids, for an adductor – cholesterol. The content of cholesterol in an adductor is 27–37% more, than in other food parts of a mollusk. The level of total carotenoids in a motive muscle (5.7 mg/100 g) 1.78 fold exceeds the contents in an adductor and by 1.5 fold elevates the contents in a cloak. The main share of carotenoids is concentrated in a motive muscle.

The antioxidant activity of the products of processing of red grape of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Saperavi

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Experimental data on the antioxidant activity of grape juice, grape concentrates and wine from grapes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Saperavi from Crimea and Krasnodar regions was presented. Flavonoids are presented in the form of glycosides of such anthocyanins as delphinidin, malvidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and also by quercetin and its glycoside, (+)-D-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. Oligomeric procyanidins, which are condensed catechol units (2–6) soluble in water, are presented in significant amounts, and polymeric procyanidins with the amount catechin units greater than 7, insoluble in water, constituted the bulk of polyphenols od wine and concentrates from red grapes (no juice). Among non-flavonoid polyphenols hydroxybenzoic (gallic, syringic) and hydroxycinnamic (caftaric, сautaric) acids are identified, the relative content of which in the amount of polyphenols in the juice is maximum, and minimum is in concentrates. It was found that antioxidant activity for all products in standard Trolox method can be estimated by the equation: Y=0.53627+0.1395X+0.080439X2-0.00064708X3, with a correlation coefficient r=0.9952; where: Y – antioxidant activity, g/dm3 by Trolox method; X – mass concentration of phenolic substances on the Folin–Ciocalteu, g/dm3. The equation is valid for Y=0.76–196.22; X=1.0–82.67. The results of biological testing of wines Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Saperavi and polyphenol concentrates from grape on the biological model of bioluminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1 demonstrated the applicability of bioassay to assess the antioxidant activity, which correlates well with the polyphenols content and antioxidant activity by trolox method.

Methods of food quality control and safety

On improvement of the mechanism for establishing and changing indicators of quality and food safety in the regulatory and legal acts of the Eurasian Economical Union

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In accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) to ensure the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population within the Union, a coordinated policy in agreed policy in the sphere of application of sanitary measures is carried out. Sanitary measures are the obligatory requirements and procedures, including requirements for the final product, processing methods, production, transportation, storage and disposal, sampling procedures, methods of research (tests), risk assessment, the state registration, requirements for packaging directly aimed at ensuring the safety of products (goods) in order to protect human welfare, and they should be applied on the basis having a scientific explanation, and only to the extent that is necessary to protect human welfare. Sanitary measures applied within the Union should be based on international and regional standards, guidelines and (or) the recommendations, except when they based on appropriate scientific studies and explanations. In this case sanitary measures which could provide a higher level of sanitary protection are introduced. At present, the mechanism of the development, justification and approval of common sanitary and epidemiological requirements (ESR) and procedures of the Eurasian Economic Commission (the Commission) is not installed. The absence of a clear mechanism for the development, approval and implementation of the ESR to the products (goods) on the basis having a scientific explanation on the one hand could lead to the creation of unjustified barriers to foreign and mutual trade, on the other – to weaken the level of safety for human life and health of products (goods) placed on markets of the Union. In order to bring the regulatory legal acts of the Customs Union in accordance with the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union the Commission in cooperation with the competent authorities of the Member States in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare developed the project of Guidelines for development, approval, modification and application of common sanitary epidemiological and hygienic requirements and procedures (hereinafter – Guidelines) which is currently undergoing approval procedures. The project envisages that the Uniform sanitary requirements are established on the basis of scientific research, including the evaluation of the risk of harmful effects of the environment on the human factors, taking into consideration the analysis of international experience in order to harmonize common sanitary requirements with international standards, guidelines and (or) recommendations. Adoption of the draft Guidelines, as well as the application of common methodologies of risk assessment and the hygienic standardization in establishing and justifying safety performance of products (goods) in the Eurasian Economic Union allow quickly and transparently develop, validate, coordinate and approve the Uniform sanitary and epidemiological and hygienic requirements and procedures for sanitary inspection (control) of products (goods) and include them into technical regulations Union.

Health education

Healthy eating: implementation of a practice-oriented training program

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Health professionals need to have current knowledge and skills in nutrition. The knowledge and skills have to be acquired in programs of continuing medical education, but also in undergraduate medical education. The main purpose of this work was to develop and implement a practice-oriented training program in nutrition and healthy eating for medical students. The subject named ≪Nutrition≫was implemented into second-year medical curriculum. We defined a theoretical framework and terms such as nutrition, healthy eating, and evidence-based nutrition. In order to get learning outcomes we constructed a method of patients counseling and training ≪Individual food pyramid≫. The making of ≪Individual food pyramid≫ is a key integrate element of the program. It helps to memorize, understand and apply the basic principles of healthy eating in real life contexts. The final program consists of two sections: ≪General Nutrition≫ and ≪Special Nutrition≫. The most important intended learning outcome is student’s lifestyle improvement. The program is practice-oriented and outcome-based.

Catering for client groups during the XXII Olympic winter games and XI Paralympic winter games of 2014 in Sochi

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The problems of catering control various client groups during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is one of the priorities of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population during mass events. The data on the order of nutrition of guests and participants of the games, control of food items, sanitary and microbiological monitoring of drinking water, food raw materials and products are presented. It is noted that the ongoing supervisory activities contributed to the sanitary and epidemiological well-being during the Games. The purpose of this study was to lighting modern achievements in the field of nutrition and food microbiology in the period of the Olympic Games and the determination of their value to the further improvement and use at when conducting mass gatherings.

Short message

Antioxidant activity of different types of red grape wines

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This article represented the data about antioxidant activity in the red table and liqueur faults, prepared from the types of grapes of Cabernet, Merlot and Saperavi. The antioxidant activity of faults in the conversion to TROLOX, the synthetic analog of gallic acid, was determined by voltammetric method. The determination of antioxidant activity was conducted in the young faults (through 2 month after the completion of fermentation) and through half a year the storage without the air inlet. It has been established that the value of antioxidant activity depended on the type of grapes and technology of the production of wine. It was shown that the addition of ethyl alcohol in the production of wines such as Cahors ensured an increase in the extraction of phenol connections from the skin of grapes. This lead to an increase of the antioxidant activity in the Cahors wines in the comparison with the table wine. During the storage of faults the value of antioxidant activity decreased. In the fault cahors wine it remained at the higher level.


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