Evaluation of the role of Campylobacter spp. in the occurrence of foodborne diseases and modern methods to detect the pathogen
Infections caused by Campylobacter spp. are now considered to be one of the most important foodborne diseases worldwide, this organism is one of the most epidemiologically significant zoonotic pathogens. Among these pathogens Campylobacter jejuni have the greatest epidemiological importance, they are responsible for 90% of laboratory confirmed cases of food campylobacteriosis.
The frequency of detection of campylobacters in the environmental and on many raw foods, of both plant and animal origin, in normal intestine biota of domestic and wild animal and birds, indicates the prevalence of these bacteria and the high risk of contamination of food and water. The main factors of transmission in sporadic campylobacteriosis are the poultry and poultry products (up to 70% of the total number of cases), water (8%), raw milk (5%). One of the risk factors for the spread of emergent pathogen is its ability to persist in aquatic ecosystems. Continuing changes in landscape and agricultural intensification can cause further enhance microbial contamination of freshwater bodies and groundwater, and the associated increase in the number of cases of waterborne campylobacteriosis. Intensification of agriculture, expanding the range of applied disinfectants and antiseptics, uncontrolled use of antibiotics in livestock often leads to the selection of the sustainable strains of Campylobacter spp., which have antibiotic resistance and multiple virulence determinants.
This paper presents an overview of modern methods for the detection of Campylobacter spp., detailed culture and biochemical methods for the isolation of C. jejuni based on the use of selective culture media and diagnostic kits for the characterization of the phenotypic profiles of the strains. These methods are the starting point in selecting the most effective schemes of food control and surveillance. It is emphasized that the basis of microbiological analysis should be molecular methods based on real-time PCR, which allows to quantify present in foods of thermotolerant Campylobacter, including C. jejuni.
Effect of minor bioactive food substances – rutin and hesperidin in their separate and combined alimentary arrives on the immune system of rats and the activity of nuclear factor NF-kB liver cells
The effect of rutin and hesperidin in their separate and combined admission to the immune system and the activity of nuclear factor NF-kB of rat liver cells has been investigated. Wistar male rats with an initial body weight of 224–225 g were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats in each. The rats of the 1st group (control) received a complete semi-synthetic diet, rats in group 2 – the same diet supplemented with rutine (400 mg/kg b.w.); the rats of group 3 – with the addition of hesperidin (400 mg/kg bw); group 4 – with the addition of rutin and hesperidin (400 mg/kg b.w. each) for 14 days. Animals received feed in free access mode in an amount of 25–30 g per rat per day, that corresponded to 15 g of dry formula. Animals received water also in free access. It has been found that rutin and hesperidin, included in the diet of rats both alone (groups 2 and 3) and together (group 4), have immunomodulatory impact which is a reduce of lymphocyte relative content [1st gr. – 70.55±1.58%, 2nd gr. – 63.62±2.85%, 3rd gr. – 62.03±3.16% (p1–3<0.05), 4th gr. – 65.75±1.08% (p1–4<0.05)] and an increase of percentage of neutrophil leukocytes [1st gr – 19.98±0.97%, 2nd gr. – 25.35±3.14%, 3rd gr. – 28.27±3.30% (p1–3<0.05), 4th gr. – 24.15±1.52% (p1–4<0.05)] and NK-cells in the peripheral blood [1st gr. – 3.29±0.45%, 2nd gr. – 6.91±0.70% (p1–2<0.05), 3rd gr. – 5.88±0.79% (p1–3<0.05), 4th gr. – 4.64±0.32% (p1–4<0.05)], that can be considered as a shift in the direction of innate immunity factors.
In addition, the combined effect of high doses of rutin and hesperidin led to a change in erythrocyte parameters: an increase in the average volume of red blood cells [1st gr. – 56.00±1.06 fl, 2nd gr. – 56.67±0.42 fl, 3rd gr. – 58.50± 0.99 fl, 4th gr. – 59.50±0.99 fl (p1–4<0.05)], and the average content of hemoglobin [1st gr. – 18.97±0.45 pg, 2nd gr. – 19.10±0.19 pg, 3rd gr. – 19.73± 0.32 pg, 4th gr. – 20.08±0.33 pg (p1–4=0.07)], as well as increase in the level of TGF-β1 in peripheral blood [1st gr. – 15.55±2.13 ng/ml, 2nd gr. – 14.81± 2.36 ng/ml, 3rd gr. – 17.02±2.53 ng/ml, 4th gr. – 22.14±2.29 ng/ml (p1–4<0.05)] and the expression of nuclear factor NF-kB in the liver cells [1st gr. – 16.10± 0.60 ng/ml; 2nd gr. – 15.14±2.28 ng/ml; 3rd gr. – 15.85±2.09 ng/ml; 4th gr. – 20.49±1.68 ng/ml (p1–4<0.05)].
Assessment of the impact of vitamin and dietary fiber content in the diet on the characteristics of protective colon microbiota populations of rats
The content of lactobacilli and enterobacteria in the experiment in rats with varying levels of vitamins and dietary fiber was studied. The study was performed on 48 male weanling Wistar rats randomized into 8 groups, with the creation of vitamin deficiency (30 d.) and its further compensation (5 d.). Vitamin content in the semisynthetic diet in rats of the control group N 1 corresponded to 100% of a daily adequate intake. In the similar composition of the diet of the control group N 2 wheat bran was added in amount of 5% of the weight of the diet. In groups N 3–8 rats received a diet with the reduced amount of vitamin mixture by 5 times (20% of the adequate intake) and the total exclusion of tocopherol, thiamine and riboflavin from the mixture. The wheat bran (5% of diet mass) was added to the diets in Groups N 4, 6, 8. At the stage of compensation of deficiency rats were fed with the diets with increased content of vitamin mixture: Group 5–6 to 80% 7–8 to 200% (100 and 220% of the adequate intake, respectively), and the groups N 3–4 continued to receive deficient diet with or without wheat bran until the end of the experiment. After 35 days rats were anesthetized with ether, decapitated, necropsied and the cecum segments were selected for quantitative microbiological analysis of its contents.
It has been shown that the addition of wheat bran to vitamin deficient diet lead to the reduction of the manifestation of physical sign of hypovitaminosis. It also eliminated the differences in the integrated index of growth and development of rats in comparison with the group without vitamin deficiency. It was found that the vitamin deficiency in the diet, regardless of the presence or absence of wheat bran, led to a significant reduction of the number of lactobacilli in the intestinal contents, but almost did not affect the number of normal and opportunistic pathogenic enterobacteria. The compensation of deficiency during 5 days lead to the increased number of lactobacilli, but the physiological levels and levels in control animals it reached only in rats received 220% of the vitamins with the addition of wheat bran. In the lactobacilli population in all rats received different doses of vitamins (including reduced to 20%), regardless of the presence of wheat bran, prevailing culturable representatives were 3 kinds of Lactobacillus spp. – acidophilus, fermentum, paracasei. These species showed stable presence in the intestine even in conditions of prolonged vitamin deficiency (35 days).
L. acidophilus was the dominated lactoflora representative in all rats, its’ content was average 91.7% of all culturable lactobacilli. With less constancy and in lower amounts were detected L. plantarum and representatives of coccal flora (Leuconostoc lactis, Lactococcus lactis).
Impact of streptozotocininduced hyperglycemia on anxiety level and physical fatigue of Wistar rats
The aim of the study was to evaluate type 2 diabetes medicamental biomodel in 70-days experiment. Control group animals were provided with water ad libitum throughout the experiment, experimental group animals for the first two weeks were provided with 20% solution of fructose ad libitum instead of water. On the 15th day, experimental group animals (average body weight 257±8 g) were injected abdominally with streptozotocin (STZ) in dosage 40 mg/kg of body weight. For the next three weeks on the 22nd, 28th and 36th days, glucose level in blood taken from the tail vein was measured using portable electrochemical glucometer. On the 37th day animals with blood glucose level 11.0 mmol/L or higher were included in experimental group for further research. On the 44th and 60th day control measurements of glucose level were conducted. On the 70th day animals were taken out of experiment by decapitation under ether anesthesia.
The concentration of glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglycerides, cholesterine, HLD and LDL were measured in blood serum. Additionally anxiety level of animals was evaluated before and after STZ injection using Elevated plusmaze.
The comparison of physical fatigue of control and experimental groups was performed using treadmill. On the 37th day blood glucose concentration of control group animals was 6.6±0.4 mmol/L. 33% of animals (13 of 40) with glucose level 11.0 mmol/L or higher formed the experimental group (average glucose level 16.2±1.3 mmol/L), other 27 rats had normal glucose level. The anxiety level of diabetic rats was higher than in control group. Diabetic rats showed significantly lower physical fatigue than control rats. On the 44th and 60th day of experiment glucose level in experimental rats from group 2 (15.5±1.4 и 14.8±1.2 mmol/L) was significantly higher than of control animals (7.0±0.5 и 6.8±0.3 mmol/L). Glycated hemoglobin level in blood serum of diabetic group (7.2±0.7%) was significantly higher than of control group (3.3±0.2%). This proves the progression of stable long-term hyperglycemia. According to results represented model can be used for initial experimental evaluation of tested antidiabetic biologically active substances.
Toxicological evaluation of nanosized colloidal silver, stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone. I. Characterization of nanomaterial, integral, hematological parameters, level of thiol compounds and liver cell apoptosis
Nano-sized colloidal silver (NCS) is currently one of the most widely used nanomaterials in medicine and consumer’s products. Nanoparticles (NPs) of silver, in addition to the direct exposition through products may expose human via various environmental objects. The aim of the study is to assess the safe doses of silver NP received orally. The investigated NCS contained silver NPs with diameter of 10–60 nm, predominantly with a nearly spherical form stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The experiment was performed during 92 days in 5 groups of male Wistar rats (n=15 in each group), receiving a balanced semisynthetic diet. Animal of group 1 (control) received vehicle (deionized water) intragastrically for 30 days and then with food, groups from 2nd to 4th – PVP and groups from 3rd to 5th NCS, in doses respectively, 0.1; 1.0 and 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) in terms of silver. The dose of PVP in groups from 2nd to 5th did not differ, amounting to 200 mg/kg b.w. During the experiment, the weight gain, skin condition, activity, stool, cognitive function were assessed. At the end of the feeding period weight of internal organs, intestinal wall permeability to protein macromolecules, liver thiols, standard values of blood erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets, hepatocyte apoptosis by flow cytometry were studied. These results suggest that in terms of weight gain, lung relative mass, average erythrocyte volume, hemoglobin content and concentration in erythrocytes, the relative proportion of lymphocytes and neutrophils adverse changes have been observed at a dose of 10 mg NPs per kg of b.w. At lower levels of exposure (0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg b.w.) some specific changes were also observed (in terms of thiols pool in liver, cognitive function, relative abundance of monocytes, the number of dead hepatocytes), which, however, did not possess an unambiguous dependence on the dose. Possible mechanisms of the toxic action of the NCS have been discussed.
Actual nutrition of patients suffered from hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome
The aim of the article is to study actual ration of patients suffered from hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and its interaction with the development of arterial hypertension (AH). 296 men aged 20–59 suffered from HFRS were under the care of physician within the period of 1 to 6 years. Among this group 49 cases of arterial hypertension have been registered after HFRS. Frequency method of food product consumption was used to define nutrition. A Russian questionnaire published by Institute of Nutrition (1997) was used. Actual nutrition in men suffered from HFRS is marked by basic nutrients unbalance that is: excessive cholesterol and fat consumption (due to saturated fatty acid), polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency, sugar overuse and animal protein prevalence over vegetable proteins in patient ration. Atherogenic shift in a ration of patients with AH and suffered from HRFS has been exposed more strongly in all aged group but mostly evident in patients aged 40 and after. Alcohol consumption in men with AH and suffered from HFRS is higher than in healthy peers. Interaction between atherogenic unbalance on the main nutrients in patients with HFRS and arterial hypertension has been defined. Consumatory behavior correction is to be taken to prevent arterial hypertension in recovered patients suffered from HFRS.
Genetic mice models of type 2 diabetes for evaluation of the effectiveness of minor biologically active food substances
This report is devoted to discussion of type 2 diabetes experimental modelling on genetic mice lines. These laboratory animals, the same as genetic rats lines, are usually used in type 2 diabetes experimental modelling. The problem of using mice with genetic obesity in modeling of type 2 diabetes is discussed in details in the review. In this article the authors shortly characterize the congenic line of mice ККАУ, suffering from genetic obesity and hyperinsulinemia. The features of modelling type 2 diabetes using ob/ob and db/db mice are described closely. The phenotype of the animals comes into obesity, infertility, brakes in length growth, hyperinsulinemia and dysimmunity. Neither leptin mRNA, nor the hormone itself are synthesized in ob/ob mice, leading to ob phenotype formation. Whilst db/db mice have two mutant copies of leptin receptor gene, which leads to gradual hyperglycemia and obesity progression, followed by hyperinsulemia similar to human type 2 diabetes. C57BL/KsLeprdb/+ mice with recessive gene leptin receptoi-Lepiнlb (db) is very perspective genetic type 2 diabetes model developed in Russia. TSOD mice are used as an alternative model (Tsumura Suzuki, diabetes with obesity), showing diabetes and obesity symptoms with marked hyperinsulinemia and pancreatic gland hypertrophy. Thus, presented in this review scientific reports approve wide opportunities of effective usage of genetic lines of small laboratory animals (mice) for type 2 diabetes modelling.
The influence of nettle and burdock extracts in combination with different diets on dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus model
The influence of low-fat diet, nettle (Urtica dioica) leafs and burdock (Arctium lappa) roots extracts on lipid metabolism and glycosylation reactions has been investigated in experimental diabetes mellitus. These extracts were applied in diets with both high and low fat content. The experiments were performed on 90 noninbred male albino rats (200–220 g) that were divided into 9 experimental groups. Diabetes mellitus was modeled with twice-repeated intraperitoneal streptozotocin (30 mg/kg) injections. The animals received food with increased fat content (proteins – 8%, fats – 30%, carbohydrates – 62% of total daily caloric content) during 4 weeks before streptozotocine injections and 8 weeks after its discontinuation. Simultaneously the rats were daily administered nettle leafs (100 mg/kg), burdock roots (25 mg/kg) extracts or metformin (100 mg/kg) into the stomach during 10 days. During the period of agents introduction half the animals continued to receive food with high fat content, the other half received low fat diet (proteins – 20%, fats – 8%, carbohydrates – 72% of the total daily caloric content). The forth (control) group received low fat food only without extracts or metformin administration. The levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, malonic dialdehyde, lipid and lipoprotein fractions content were measured. It has been shown that after streptozotocine injections and 30% fat diet consumption the blood glucose level increased by 5.3 fold compared to that of the intact animals, the content of atherogenic lipid fractions increased by 2–8.3 fold and the protein glycosylation reactions were intensified by 1.9–2.5 fold. In animals fed with 8% fat diet the blood glucose and malonic dialdehyde content decreased by 1.8–2.3 fold. In this experiment the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, cholesterol of nonhigh-density lipoproteins, low-density and very low-density lipoproteins, as well as the cholesterol and protein content of high-density lipoproteins normalized. The low fat food did not cause glycosylation reactions regression. With the administration of nettle, burdock extracts or metformin to animals that continued to receive high fat food the blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, cholesterol of nonhigh-density lipoproteins, low-density and very low-density lipoproteins levels decreased by l.6–7.l fold as compared to the parameters in streptozotocine diabetes mellitus. Cholesterol and protein content of high-density lipoproteins increased by l.4–3.7 fold. The herbal extracts also prevented malonic dialdehyde formation, high-density lipoproteins and hemoglobin glycosylation. The nettle and burdock extracts more effectively decreased hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and lipoperoxidation in animals fed with low fat food. Metformin in the experiment with low fat intake decreased the glucose, low-density and very low-density lipoproteins content to a maximal degree and prevented high-density lipoproteins glycosylation.
Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the state of insulin resistance, the content of some pro- and antiinflammatory factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy
We have investigated the influence of the long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) administration on the insulin resistance parameters, levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), some pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM) and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). The study involved 12 patients with T2 DM without verified cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 36 patients with T2 DM and functional stage of CAN, of median age 50–59 years, disease duration 1–6 years and HbA1c levels – 7.1±0.6%. 15 healthy subjects were control group. Screening for CAN, that included five standard cardiovascular tests, was performed.
The levels of blood glucose, HbA1c, immunoreactive insulin (IRI), hsCRP, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were measured. The index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and TNFα/IL-10 ratio were calculated. Patients with T2 DM and CAN were divided into 2 groups: patients of the 1st group (group of comparison, n=15) received standard glucose-lowering therapy; patients of the 2nd group (n=21) received one capsule/day of the ω-3 PUFA (∼90% ethyl ester of PUFA (1000 mg), in particular eicosapentaenoic – 460 mg, docosahexaenoic acid – 380 mg and 4 mg α-tocopherol acetate) in addition to the standard therapy. The duration of the study was 3 months. Obtained results showed, that development of CAN in patients with T2 DM is accompanied by increase of the IRI (26.6±1.73 mcIU/ml, p<0.001 – compared to the control; p1<0.001 – compared to T2 DM patients without CVD); hsCRP (2.77±0.24 mg/l, p<0.001, p1<0,001); TNFα (5.75±0.24 pg/ml, p<0.001, p1<0.001); IL-6 (5.88±0.38 pg/ml, p<0.001, p1<0.001); IL-8 (6.65±0.3 pg/ml, p<0.001, p1>0.05); IL-10 (15.86±1.4 pg/ml, p<0.05, p1>0.05) levels; TNFα/IL-10 (44.2±3.57%, p<0.01, p1<0.05) and HOMA-IR. After 3 months of treatment no statistically significant changes (p>0.05) of investigated parameters, in particular levels of IRI (-6.8±2.0%); hsCRP (-7.2±1.63%); TNFα (-6.1±1.0%); IL-6 (-5.8±1.77%); IL-8 (-3.9±1.57%); IL-10 (-3.7±2.34%); TNFα/IL-10 (-0.5±2.3%) in patients from the group of comparison were found. The administration of ω-3 PUFA to patients with T2 DM and CAN promoted to the statistically significant decrease in hsCRP (-14.8±2.91%, p<0.05), TNFα (-14.1±2.15%, p<0.01), IL-6 (-13.5±2.7%, p<0.05), IL-8 (-9.8±2.13%, p<0.05), TNFα/IL-10 ratio (-34.6±1.93%, p<0.05); a slighty decrease in the content of the IRI (-10.3±1.1%, p>0.05), IL-10 (+7.9 ±6.42%, p>0.05), HOMA-IR was observed. Obtained results could witness, that prescription of ω-3 PUFA leads to decrease of the proinflammatory immune response activity and allows to consider ω-3 PUFA as a promising medicine in treatment and/or prevention of CAN in patients with DM 2.
Dry jelly concentrate with vitamins and dietary fiber in patients with IBS with constipation: a comparative controlled study
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is highly prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder associated with decrease in quality of life and a high social cost. Diet is one of several therapeutic options in IBS treatment; therefore the development and clinical evaluation of innovative functional food for IBS patients is useful. Dry jelly concentrate containing 3 g inulin, 10 mg curcumin and 1.8 mg of pyridoxine was developed and clinically evaluated. Fifty patients fulfilling the Rome III criteria for IBS-C were randomly assigned into two groups: one received standard diet plus two jelly drinks a day for 2 weeks and control group received standard diet. Response to therapy was recorded on a daily basis using Likert scale of abdominal pain, bloating and feeling of incomplete bowel emptying, frequency of bowel movement, Bristol stool scale, and quality of life assessed by IBSQoL questionnaire before and after the treatment. Intake of functional food product (jelly) containing inulin and curcumin is associated with a significant positive effect on the stool parameters (from 0.6±0.24 to 1.15±0.65 t/d in stool frequency, p=0.001, from 2.62±1.23 to 3.99±1.27, index Bristol scale, p=0.001), a reduce of the severity of abdominal pain (from 1.69±0.71 to 1.36±0.44 Likert scale points, p=0.001), bloating (from 2.03±0.89 to 1.55±0.81 points of Likert scale, p=0.02) and a sense of incomplete bowel emptying (from 2.25±0.98 to 1.68±0.92 points of Likert scale, p=0.001), as well as an increase in quality of life (from 64.5±13.5 to 81.2±9.1%, р=0.05). Patients in control group have improvement in abdominal pain (from 2.16±0.58 to 1.8±0.61 Likert scale points, p=0.05) and bloating (from 2.42±0.83 to 2.16±0.71 Likert scale points, p=0.05) only. During the treatment period no significant adverse events were found. These results indicate that jelly concentrate containing inulin, curcumin and pyridoxine improves abdominal pain score, Bristol scale index and quality of life in patients with IBS-C.
Influence of cookies with a modified carbohydrate profile on postprandial glycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes
The aim of the study was assessment of influence of cookies with a modified carbohydrate profile on postprandial glycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. The study included 20 patients 35–69 years old, with type 2 diabetes and obesity II–III degrees (BMI=40.2±1.1 kg/m2) treated with standard hypoglycemic therapy. At the time of the initial evaluation all patients were determined at the stage of metabolic subcompensation: glucose basal level in venous blood was 6.8±0.3 mmol/l; in capillary blood – 6.5±0.5 mmol/l; the level of glycated hemoglobin – 7.2±0.2%. Glucose blood plasma level on an empty stomach and within 3 hours after the consumption of biscuits with modified carbohydrate profile (25 g digestible carbohydrates) and wheat bread containing 25 g digestible carbohydrates (control) was determined. Calculation of the area under the glycemic curve was conducted by standard technique. Portability of cookies with a modified carbohydrate profile (replacement of wheat flour to the mixture of buckwheat, oat and barley flour and the use of maltitol) was good, with no side effects or signs of intolerance were observed. It has been shown that consumption of biscuits with a modified carbohydrate profile was accompanied by a significantly smaller rise in blood glucose level after 30 min from the start of the study, compared with the standard food load (an average of 19.1% and 42.4%, respectively, from baseline, p<0.05). After 120 and 180 min after the test food loads glycemia changed equally, without significant differences between foodstuffs. Area under the glycemic curve in the consumption of cookies with a modified carbohydrate profile was significantly less than under the standard food load (184.6±16.7 vs. 236.9±21.2 mmol/l×min, p<0.05). Consumption of biscuits with modified carbohydrate profile was accompanied by less severe postprandial glycemic response in patients with type 2 diabetes in comparison with that at a standard load food containing 25 g digestible carbohydrates.
Comparative assessment of efficiency of the low-calorie diets modified by proteinaceous and vitamin cocktails
The aim of the work is comparative assessment of efficiency of a hypocaloric diet with inclusion of proteinaceous and vitamin cocktails at obesity. 90 patients with obesity of the II–III degree at the age of 18–65 years by the principle of casual selection were divided into three groups. Control group (30 patients) received a standard low-calorie diet with an energy value of 1600 kcal/day. The diet of the 1st group (30 patients) was modified by the inclusion of protein-vitamin-mineral cocktail (16 g of dry mixture with the addition of 250 ml of yogurt 1.0% fat) twice a day, diet of the 2nd group (30 patients) – the inclusion of a protein cocktail (16 g of dry mixture with the addition of 250 ml of yogurt 1.0% fat), while excluding from the diet equivalent caloric meals. The 1st group of patients had a decrease in fat mass by 4.2±0.7 kg (p<0.02), in active lean mass by 1.1±0.1 kg, in total fluid volume by 2.2±0.3 kg (p<0.02). The 2nd group of patients had a decrease in fat mass by 3.8±0.9 kg (p<0.01), in lean mass by 1.4±0.3 kg and in the total fluid volume by 3.1±0.9 l (p<0.02). In the control group attention should be paid to a decrease in lean mass by 1.9±0.6 kg, while fat mass decreased by 3.0±0.4 kg (p<0.02) and the total fluid volume by 3.1±0.9 l (p<0.02). Evaluation of the changes of serum biochemical parameters after treatment demonstrated that the 1st group of patients had significant favorable dynamics of reduction of serum level of total cholesterol, uric acid and glucose (17.7, 28.2 and 18.3%, respectively), which was more pronounced compared with the dynamics in the control group (the decrease by 15, 19.2 and 8.2%, respectively). In the 2nd group of patients the decrease rate of the observed parameters was less pronounced (15, 19.2 and 8.2%, respectively).
More appreciable favorable dynamics of biochemical parameters and reduction in body weight in the 1st and 2nd groups in relation to the control group allow to reasonably apply the protein-vitamin cocktails in a diet therapy at obesity.
The role of the food industry in dietetic therapy of the population. Specialized confectionery diabetic food
Diabetes mellitus is a serious health and social problem of modernity, which in the future will increase and experts predict that the number of patients in 2030 will exceed 438,4 million. Taking into account the seriousness of the problem, and the fact that diabetes hurts an increasing number of young adults, the problem of creating diabetic food products, the positive effect of which on the organism is confirmed by experimental and clinical studies, is very relevant. The overview briefly covers information about the role of diet and ways to modify the composition and formulations of confectionery products of industrial production. The results of industry work towards the development of diabetic confectionery products in Russian Federation and peculiarities of their production and implementation in the framework of the Customs Union countries are summarized. Monitoring of the information entered in the register of specialized food products has been carried out, the lack of common approaches and tools in regulation imposed on the diabetic products in Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan has been revealed. The necessity of objective regulatory impact assessment has been established. Its results will form the basis of the development of a unified approach to the production, handling and identification of diabetic confectionery and of the introduction of the General principle in relation to the probative value of the data, confirming their quality and safety. To improve the quality of population life and to reduce losses from socially significant diseases is possible through the development of personalized diets and their filling with products with attractive sensory properties. These data indicate the need for training highly qualified specialists with interdisciplinary knowledge in the field of food technology, nutrition and medicine.
Group preventive consultation of the population concerning nutrition. Experience of School of the balanced nutrition founded on the basis of the Health centers
The development of the program of group preventive consultation of visitors of the centers of health concerning nutrition and assessment of its efficiency was the purpose of the work. The analysis of the results of inspection of 2569 visitors of the Health сenter at the age of 18–78 years and randomized, open, cross research of 242 women (27–72 years old) who passed group preventive consultation in the Center of health at «School of a balanced nutrition » were carried out. Anthropometrical data and the actual nutrition with use of the computer program «Analysis of the Person Nutrition» were studied. The study of nutritional status of 242 women with different body mass revealed an excess consumption of fats and carbohydrates, dietary energy supply in obese.
Basing on the structural features of patient’s nutrition the School nutrition program was developed. Сomparing of laboratory, diagnostic and resource capabilities of Health сenter with algorithm of overweight and obesity patients treatment has shown wide opportunities of Health сenter, not only in the diagnosis (the study of nutrient, metabolic status), but also in the complex treatment of patients with different body mass. Due to group preventive counseling in the School of a balanced nutrition the efficiency of such an approach contributed 1-month weight loss (2.18±1.28 kg) in 64.4% of the participants.
Theoretical and practical aspects of development of biscuits with a modified carbohydrate profile for patients with type 2 diabetes
The purpose of this research was to develop formulation and technology of flour confectionery products in the form of biscuits with a modified carbohydrate profile, a study of physico-chemical and structural-mechanical properties. The оbjects of this research were: basic food matrix, are the prototype of the designed product without modification of the carbohydrate profile prepared by the classic recipe and traditional technologies; model samples of cookies with a modified carbohydrate profile; the experimental sample cookie with a modified carbohydrate profile and optimized physic-chemical, structural-mechanical and organoleptic indicators. Determination of physic-chemical and organoleptic characteristics of biscuits was carried out by standard methods. The water activity was determined on the analyzer using a cooled mirror dew point sensor, structural-mechanical properties – on texturename with conical and cylindrical nozzles, imitating the processes of breakage and bite, describing the hardness, brittleness, breakage, and other properties of a food product. The modification of the carbohydrate profile of biscuit, consisting in the replacement of wheat flour traditionally used in the recipe of flour confectionery products, by the composition containing oat, barley and buckwheat flour, and in the exclusion of sugar and the introduction of ingredients that do not cause hyperglycemic effect: maltitol as a sweetener and beta-glucans. The technological scheme of production of new kinds of cookies has been developed, the parameters of the production process have been worked out, physical-chemical, structural-mechanical and organoleptic properties of a new type of cookie have been optimized. Analysis of the chemical composition of the cookies showed that 100 g contains 9.3 g of protein, 17.0 g of fat and 44.5 g of carbohydrates, including 42.4 g of starch, and 2.1 g mono- and disaccharides, 2.2 g dietary fiber, 20 g maltitol; caloric value of 420 kcal/1760 kJ. In accordance with the developed technology an experimental batch of cookies with a modified carbohydrate profile has been produced to evaluate its impact on postprandial glycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Nutrition value of national milk products with the addition of wild berries and wild food plants of Yakutia
Results of an assessment of the actual food of the population in various medicoeconomic zones of the republic (industrial, agricultural, Arctic) by method of the frequency analysis of food consumption are presented in the article. The analysis of control of compliance of quality and safety of foodstuff in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), according to requirements of the legislation of the Russian Federation, acts of the Customs union has been made. Decreased consumption of such foodstuff as milk, fish and meat products including products from local food staples and national dishes has been established. The data obtained are medic-biological justification for search of ways of optimization of population nutrition, creation of specialized products with a functional purpose and for the prevention of the states and diseases connected with nutrition violation. They also define innovative development of the republic in questions of biotechnologies of the production of specialized foods for various groups of the population. Results of chemical composition research of the most used wild-growing food plants of Yakutia are given. The questions connected with the nutrition and biological value of the dairy products of a functional purpose with use of wild-growing food herbs and berries of Yakutia are discussed.
Vitamin-mineral supplements in nutrition of adults
The diet of population consisting of natural products is quite adequate and even excessive of energy consumption, but is not able to meet fully the need of organism in a number of micronutrients. Due to lack of sun exposure and long presence indoors endogenous synthesis of vitamin D in the skin by ultraviolet radiation does not provide the body’s need for this vitamin. Intake of vitaminmineral supplements (VMS) is appropriate because combined deficiency of vitamins and minerals takes place in population. Prophylactic doses (equal to physiological needs) provide a diet completeness and reduce the risk of vitamin deficiency and its consequences. The high incidence of combined deficiency of vitamins among population and the existence of vitamin interactions are the basis for the application of the multivitamins. The simultaneous intake of vitamins is more physiological, their combination is more effective than a separate or isolated destination of each of them. Efficacy of the VMS has been shown in the treatment and prevention of some diseases. The main requirements for the VMS are full list of vitamins and minerals, the lack of which is detected most frequently, in doses covering the needs of organism. For the health of the pregnant woman and her unborn child preference should be given for complexes, containing DHA and/or probiotics along with vitamins. The principles of the selection of the composition and vitamin doses in the VMS for using patients suffering from various pathologies should be based on data on the patient’s sufficiency with vitamins, the understanding of the role of vitamin deficiency in the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as on the composition of the diet and its modifications.