Content
 . 
Reviews

Nutritional epigenetics and epigenetic effects of human breast milk

Annotation

The article provides an overview of the current literature on nutritional epigenetics. There are currently actively studied hypothesis that nutrition especially in early life or in critical periods of the development, may have a role in modulating gene expression, and, therefore, have later effects on health in adults. Nutritional epigenetics concerns knowledge about the possible effects of nutrients on gene expression. Human breast milk is well-known for its ability in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis, infectious diseases, and also non-communicable diseases, such as obesity and related disorders. This paper discusses about presumed epigenetic effects of human breast milk and some its components. While evidence suggests that a direct relationship may exist of some components of human breast milk with epigenetic changes, the mechanisms involved are stillunclear.

The effect of microwaves on the fat component and preserve vitamins in foods

Annotation

The use of microwave oven provides a convenient way to thaw, cook or reheat foods nowadays. Safety of microwave cooking of food is still the subject of research. Wave of interest is caused on the one hand the emergence of new research methods that enable detailed characterization of the processes occurring in the food under the influence of microwaves, on the other hand, – to clarify the influence of the individual components of the diet (trans-fatty acids, the products of oxidation of fats and lipids, conjugated alpha linolenic acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid and others) on human health. Analysis of the collected information on the effect of microwaves on the quality of the vegetable oils, fat component of food, as well as the preservation of water-soluble vitamins and vitamin E is presented. Most studies show that the loss of vitamin E and the formation of fat oxidation products are directly dependent on the power used, and the microwave heating time. Microwaves exposure on fat and fatty foods during less than 3 minutes at average power 500 watts is minimal. Nutritional value of dishes cooked using microwave ovens and using traditional cooking methods are comparable. Information about the use as natural antioxidants polyphenols from various plant extracts (olive leaves, lavender, green and white tea, etc.) are presented. Content of vitamin C in vegetables cooked in a microwave oven is higher than by boiling or baking in most cases. Vitamins (B1, B2, niacin) retention in microwaved foods is equal or better than conventionally prepared foods because of the shorter heating time. Chemical (formation of carcinogens) and microbiological risks associated with microwave cooking, is often lower than in traditional cooking. Microwave cooking (if cooking time required to reach the proper temperature, and power) provides the most complete destruction of germs and worms. The microwave cook of food should be done only in specially designed for this purpose container in connection with the possibility of migration of chemicals from materials in that heats food. Negative influence of microwave cooking food on the functional state of an organism is not revealed. Thus, differences in the nutritional value of dishes prepared using the microwave and traditional way, are minimal. Nevertheless, the possible influence of heat treatment on the keeping quality of the fat components (modules) for fortified and functional foods, especially semifinished products or products to be thawed and / or heating should be taken into account. Search natural ingredients, to possess protective (from the influence of the heat treatment) effect on the fat component, remains an urgent task.

Biochemistry of nutrition

Experimental study of influence of lipophilic products of phytogenic origin on lipid metabolism in rats

Annotation

The article presents the results of biochemical evaluation of metabolic effects of lipophilic products of plant origin among which such oils as linseed, black nuts and walnuts oils as well as medicine «Phosphogliv» were selected as the most promising ones. The influence of the studied substances on lipid metabolism in experiment on male rats (170–220 g body weight) with modeled acute hepatotoxicity with carbon tetrachloride (that was achieved by subcutaneous injection of 50% oil solution of carbon tetrachloride – 0.5 ml/100 g of the body mass once a day during 3 days) has been investigated. Liver function was assessed by triacylglycerols content in the serum, total, esterified and nonesterified cholesterol, cholesterol in the lipoproteins of high, low and very low density, as well as by the nonesterified cholesterol and phospholipids content in the hemolysate of red blood cells. Carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxic damage was accompanied by the development of severe hypercholesterolemia associated both with the increase in total cholesterol and its content in low density lipoproteins alongside the reducing of the cholesterol concentration in high density lipoproteins, resulted in secondary dyslipoproteinemia. Inhibition of the esterification of cholesterol processes as well as the decrease in the triacylglycerols concentration was observed. It is connected with the triacylglycerols endogenous synthesis blocking in the liver, resulted from its toxic damage. It is also confirmed by cholesterol content reducing in the lipoproteins of very low density. In erythrocytes of rats with CCl4 intoxication phospholipid content decreased while the amount of nonesterified cholesterol that is a component of cell membranes, influencing the proteins and lipids diffusion, which reduces the mobility of the fatty acid residues of phospholipids, increased. The injection of the black nuts and walnuts oils as well as flax oil (intragastric injections 0.2 ml daily in the morning before the main feeding from the 7th to the 30th day of the experiment, n=25 in each group) to rats with liver failure induced by carbon tetrachloride, contributed to the partial restoration of liver tissue structure and statistically reliable decrease of lipid metabolism. Decrease in the total cholesterol content by 17.5% in the group of animals treated with linseed oil was observed; LDL cholesterol also decreased under the influence of walnuts and black nuts oils by 36.7 and 40.6% respectively. The increase in the content of phospholipids in erythrocytes of rats when administered by the studied lipophilic products has made it possible to prove the improvement of the cell membranes rheological properties. The results of the study of the influence of linseed, black nuts and walnuts oils as well as medicine «Phosphogliv» on animals with hepatotoxicity by CCl4 have proved positive effect of these lipophilic substances on lipid metabolism.

Physiology and biochemistry nutrition

Genomic, proteomic and metabolomic predictors of atherosclerosis in obese patients. Part II

Annotation

Currently there is no extensive research of metabolic disorders in obese patients with atherosclerosis, including the study of genomic, biochemical, immune and other markers. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify the genomic, proteomic and metabolic predictors of atherosclerosis in obese patients. We evaluated condition of the cardiovascular system of the 100 obese patients aged 18 to 66 years, which were divided in two groups of patients: Group 1 consisted of 50 obese patients without vascular pathology, 2nd group consisted of 50 patients with obesity, complicated by atherosclerosis. We carried out a study of the lipid metabolism and analysis of polymorphic alleles ε2, ε3, ε4 of the ApoE gene by PCR. Our data showed that clinically significant predictors of atherosclerosis in obese patients are homozygous genotypes ε2/ε2 of the ApoE gene, increased blood serum level of triglycerides, oxidated LDL, interleukin-6, adhesion molecules SICAM, L-FABP and adiponectin reduction.

Enrichment of the rats diet with docosahexaenoic acid and astaxanthin: physiological and biochemical efficiency

Annotation

To investigate the effect of enrichment of the rats diet with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ω-3 (220 mg docosahexaenoic acid per 1 kg of animal body weight per day) and astaxanthin (5 mg/kg body weight) on serum corticosterone concentration, physical fatigue, anxiety of rats after exhausting the load. During 30 days the rats of the test group received the diet in which the usual fat component comprising sunflower oil and lard (1:1) was completely replaced by the mixture of oils (high oleic sunflower (89%), coconut (6%), and marine oil from microalgae Schizochytrium sp. (5%) with a high content of docosahexaenoic acid with the addition of astaxanthin). Ratio of ω-6 and ω-3 PUFA in the lipid component of the experimental diet was 5.2:1 (n=12) and 135:1 in the diet of rats in the control group (n=12). DHA enrichment of the diet resulted in a significant 10-fold increase of the DHA liver content and ω-6 PUFA reducing (in particular of linoleic acid in 2.7-fold). No significant differences have been identified between the groups in terms of anxiety, estimated on the elevated plus maze at the beginning and on 24th day of the experiment. Results of the exhausting load on a treadmill (25th day) showed a significant reduction in physical fatigue in rats of the experimental group compared with the control group of rats: the number of contacts with the electrical grid was 4.2±0.9 versus 19.7±4.4, fulltime shock was 0.9±0.2 versus 3.3±0.8 sec. Significantly lower serum corticosterone concentration took place in the subjected to exhausting exertion animals receiving lipid module (15.0±3.9 ng/ml) compared to control animals (31.0±5.4 ng/ml). Thus, modification of the lipid component of the diet by its enrichment with DHA and astaxanthin led to decrease of the rat fatigue during exercise training (test treadmill) and prevent from the serum corticosterone raise, that indicates animal stress adaptation ability.

Diet treatment

Impact of new fermented dairy product with whey protein hydrolysate on tolerance and dynamics of atopic dermatitis manifestation in children suffering from cow’s milk protein allergy

Annotation

Traditionally dietetic fermented dairy products occupy significant place in prophylaxis and therapy of different digestive tract diseases. Under enrichment of such products with probiotics and prebiotics their regular intake promotes to maintain human’s immune status. Moreover it is known that conformation of milk proteins during fermentation with starter microorganisms can reduce fermented products allergenicity comparing to original milk thereby attaching them additional functional properties. In this aspect the controlled biocatalytical conversion of milk proteins is perspective making it possible as well to manufacture the products with low allergenicity and at that keeping the properties required for immunological (oral) tolerance formation. The work presents the results of the carried out clinic-laboratory investigations covering the tolerance of the new developed fermented product «Biokefir – P 1% fat content» with 20% replacement of milk proteins for whey proteins hydrolysate (cheese whey) in 20 children suffering from cow’s milk protein allergy in the form of atopic dermatitis at the stage of the disease remission. The analyses showed that daily intake of the product (250 ml) by the children at the age of 3–16 years with light manifestation of food allergy against the background of non specific hypoallergenic diet influences positively the children general state and is accompanied by improvement of the organism antioxidant protection index (increase of antioxidant blood serum volume regarding to peroxilic radical from 5.82±0.35 to 6.84±0.43 mM of trolox equivalents) and intestine microbiota (increase of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria in intestine from 18.7±0.83 to 24.7±15.3 and from 15.3±0.31 to 19.1±0.65 UE). The patients’ blood serum didn’t show any marker changes for food allergy parameters – content of crude protein and the level of circulating allergen specific IgG and IgE antibodies to β-lactoglobulin of cow’s milk the confirms the product low allergenic properties.

Vitaminology

Estimation of vitamin status of moscow student according to data on vitamins intake and their levels in blood

Annotation

Supply with vitamins C, A, E and B2 of 61 high school students (38 girls and 23 boys, aged 18–22 years, body mass index – 23.0±0.6 kg/m2) by means of determination of blood plasma concentration of ascorbic acid, retinol and carotenoids, tocopherols and riboflavin has been investigated in the period from May to September. All students were well supplied with vitamin C (only 2 boys had a reduced level of ascorbic acid) and vitamin A. Decreased level of carotenoids was more common in boys (48 versus 24% in girls). 20% of the students were insufficiently supplied with vitamin E, 38% – with vitamin B2. 39% of students (50% girls and 22% boys) were adequately provided with all studied vitamins. 5% of the students had a combined deficiency of 3 vitamins, 20% – 2 vitamins. Student’s sufficiency with vitamins B2, C, A, E, carotenoids did not depend on the season. Diet intake of vitamins C, A, carotenoids and vitamin B2 has been calculated basing on the data on the frequency of food consumption during the previous month. Reduced consumption relatively to the Russia RDA of vitamins В2, C and А took place in 63, 54 and 46% of the students respectively. The lack of vitamin B2 in the diet was most pronounced, the value of probabilistic risk corresponded to the average level in 34% of students. Average probabilistic risk of inadequate intake of vitamin A was present in 17% of students, vitamin C – 6%. Coincidence of the results of vitamin C and A status assessment obtained by calculation of vitamin diet intake and by biochemical methods (concentration of vitamins in the blood plasma) was 94 and 83%. These methods are interchangeable if you select the value of the average probability of risk failure intake of these vitamins as a criterion. Proportion of coinciding results of the estimation of vitamin B2 status was 56%. Special well-designed studies on larger sample surveyed are needed for the final output of the interchangeability of methods to assess riboflavin status.

Hygiene of nutrition

Сontamination of baby foods with ochratoxin A

Annotation

Mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread contaminant of raw cereal grains with nephrotoxic activity. Сereal-based baby foods (BF) are an important component of the infant diet. In Russia, the presence of OTA in grainbased BF is not allowed (<0.5 ng/kg), in the EU maximum limit of toxin in BF is 0.5 ng/kg. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) set for OTA a provisional tolerable weekly intake of 100 ng/kg bw; the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) – 120 ng/kg bw. The purpose of this study was to investigate the OTA content in BF (infant cereals and canned food) and assess the relevant risk to the health of children first year of life. The analysis of OTA was performed by immunoaffinity column clean-up and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for OTA were 0.10 and 0.50 ng/kg, respectively. The content of OTA in BF was represented as maximum (Max), mean (M), median (Мe) and 90 percentile (90%) of all samples. The 554 BF samples based on corn, rice, buckwheat, millet, wheat, oats, barley, and mixtures of cereals were studied. OTA was detected in 32 samples of BF: in 30 of the 312 samples of infant cereals (Max – 4.95 ng/kg; M – 0.09 ng/kg, Me and 90% – 0 ng/kg) and in 2 of the 242 samples of canned food (0.34 and 0.37 ng/kg). 20 samples of BF were contaminated with OTA above the maximum limit (0.50 ng/kg). BF, exhibited the highest incidence of OTA, were buckwheat-based (13 of 41 samples, Max – 2.52 ng/kg, M – 0.36 ng/kg, Me – 0 ng/kg, 90% – 1.57 ng/kg) and mixed-grain (12 of 115 samples, Max – 4.95 ng/kg, M – 0.10 ng/kg, Me – 0 ng/kg, 90% – 0.14 ng/kg) infant cereals. OTA was also detected in 2 of 40 samples of oat-based infant cereals (0.19 and 0.60 ng/kg), in 2 of 72 samples of rice-based infant cereals (0.18 and 0.48 ng/kg) and in 1 of 37 samples of wheat-based infant cereals (0.13 ng/kg). None of the 4 samples of corn-based and of the 3 samples of millet-based infant cereals contained OTA. Calculations showed that for infants the daily ochratoxin A dietary intake did not exceed 6.8 ng/kg bw. This value of OTA intake is below the levels, proposed as tolerable intake. Thus, one can conclude that cereal-based BF (infant cereals and canned food) are moderately contaminated with OTA and there is not a significant toxicological risk to the health of children of first year of life. However, identification of BF samples containing OTA above the maximum limit, demonstrates the need for thorough monitoring of the quality of the products from the manufacturers and regulatory authorities.

The ratio of ubiqiunon redox forms in the liver mitochondria under toxic hepatitis induced on the background of alimentary protein deficiency

Annotation

The level of the total ubiqiunon and redox forms CoQ in the rat liver mitochondria under the conditions of alimentary protein deficiency and toxic hepatitis, induced on the background protein deficiency has been investigated. Research has been carried out on 36 white non-linear rats, divided into 4 groups: 1 – rats, maintained on the complete semisynthetic ration; 2 – rats, fed low-protein ration; 3 – rats with acute acetaminophen-induced hepatitis, maintained on complete ration; 4 – rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis, maintained under the conditions of protein deficiency. The content of total and oxidized ubiqiunon was determined spectrophotometrically at λ=275 nm (molar extinction coefficient 12.25 Mm-1×sm-1). Reduced ubiqiunon content was determined by the difference between total and oxidized ubiqiunon content. The amount of tyrosine in the liver was measured in deproteinised by 6% sulfosalicylic acid extracts of liver tissue on an automated amino acid analyzer. The decrease of the total ubiqiunon content in liver mitochondria by 35% on the background of 2-fold decrease of oxidized ubiqiunon and preservation of reduced ubiqiunon amount has been estimated under the conditions of low-protein diet. Simultaneously the 5-fold decrease of liver content of tyrosine – the ubiqiunon precursor – has been observed. It has been shown, that under the conditions of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis the content of total ubiqiunon and its redox forms in the liver mitochondria of rats fed complete diet didn’t change significantly comparing to control. A decrease of total ubiqiunon by 60% on the background of acute (18-fold) decrease of reduced ubiqiunon in liver mitochondria of rats with hepatitis, fed low-protein diet, has been observed. Established changes of the content of redox ubiquinone forms (a key component of the oxidative phosphorylation system in the liver mitochondria) can be considered as one of the mechanisms of malfunction of energy biotransformation system under the conditions of toxic liver injury in animals with protein deficiency.

Adipose tissue composition in puberty and postpuberty according to age, sex (gender), physical activity and alimentary behavior

Annotation

The study involved 110 adolescents from 15 to 22 years (35 boys, 75 girls). To assess eating habits and physical activity we used WHO questionnaires. We also analyzed anthropometry, bioimpedance data, parameters of the cardiovascular system: systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate. It has been shown, that body mass index (BMI) in adolescents didn’t correlate with the content of both total and visceral adipose tissue in the body and shoud not be used as a major diagnostic criterion of obesity. An excessive content of total adipose tissue was shown in 15% of the puberty and postpuberty teens. Visceral fat content was significantly higher in male, than female (3.03±3.31 vs 2.11±1.57%), independently of the total fat percentage (18.91±16.83 and 31.72±19.24% respectively). The visceral fat in the body begins to increase in age of 16. According to the authors, such an effect in boys and girls is associated with the final changes of puberty (concentration of sex steroids). Such hormons like testosterone and progesterone and estradiol have different effects on the white adipose tissue and play a key role in proceses of its differentiation and metabolism. Percentage of total adipose tissue depends on dietary habits in the first place – the predominance of fast food. A significant relationship of physical activity and the percentage of visceral fat was shown.

The dependence of diet macronutrient composition and energy intake from human phase of the weekly cycle – weekdays/weekends

Annotation

When planning your diet regime is desirable to focus on the natural feeding behavior of the person. However, many aspects of eating behavior are not studied. The aim of this work was to study the changes of diet calorie and nutrient composition depending on the body mass index (BMI), time of day, week cycle phase: weekends/weekdays, and the availability of rational installation in nutrition. The study involved 67 women aged 29 to 49 years with a BMI of 18.3 to 34.2 kg/m2. Macronutrient composition and energy value of the diet were evaluated by analyzing the food diaries, which were filled by all respondents continuously for 8 workdays and 4 weekends. The results of this study showed no significant correlation between BMI and calorie intake, while a positive correlation was observed between BMI and fat component of the diet (r=0.362, p0.05). It was also found that the restriction of food intake in the evening (after 8 pm) did not lead to a decrease in total daily energy value of the diet, and was characterized by the consumption in the evening about 31% of the total fat intake. Diet energy value was significantly higher on weekends than during the week and was 2376±394 against 1940±402 kcal (p<0.05). According to the data obtained, compliance «restriction of supply in the evening» does not lead to a significant reduction in daily caloric intake.

Toxicological assessment of nanostructured silica. IV. Immunological and allergological indices in animals sensitized with food allergen and final discussioin

Annotation

This paper is the final in a series of publications on the assessment of subacute oral toxicity of nanostructured silica (SiO2). Preparation studied was a commercial nanopowder of SiO2, obtained by hydrolysis of tetrachlorosilane in the gaseous phase with the size of primary nanoparticles (NPs) of 5–30 nm. The experiment was conducted in 95 male Wistar rats weighing 150–180 g, divided into 6 groups numbering 25 (group 1), 26 (group 2), 11 (groups 3–6) of animals. The aqueous dispersion of SiO2 after sonication was administered to animals of groups 2, 4 and 6 for 28 days by intragastric gavage at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight per day. Animals of groups 1, 3, and 5 were treated with deionized water. On the 1st, 3d, 5th and 21st day of experiment the rats of groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were sensitized intraperitoneally with hen’s egg ovalbumin (OVA) adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. Intravenous administration of the challenge dose OVA to rats in groups 1 and 2 was carried out on the 29th day. In the same period animals of groups 3–6 were bled for analysis of cellular immunity. There were evaluated the severity of systemic anaphylaxis reaction, the level of specific IgG antibodies to OVA in sensitized animals, state of erythrocytes, platelets and leukocytes of peripheral blood using standard methods. Using flow cytometry there were measured contents of lymphocyte populations of B-lymphocytes (CD45RA+), total T-lymphocytes (CD3+), T-helper cells (CD4+), T-cytotoxic cells (CD8+), NKcells (CD161a+), phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in respect of latex particles. Serum levels of TNFα and IL-10 cytokines were determined by ELISA. The result showed that NPs SiO2, at dose of 100 mg/kg body weight had no any marked effect on severity of active anaphylactic shock and level of specific antibodies. The changes in cellular immunity under the influence of nanomaterial had similar direction in sensitized and non-sensitized animals and were more pronounced in the latter. Based on the discussion of the results, together with data from previous publications it was concluded that oral maximum level without observable adverse effect (NOAEL) of nanostructured SiO2 is located below 100 mg/kg body weight.

Discussion

Рroblems of ensuring the safety of deep-fried fast food products

Annotation

There are no doubts that fast-food restaurants, where deep-frying is actively used, are now very popular in Russia. This article focuses on the problems of deep-fried food safety. During deep-frying a considerable amount of fat penetrates the food. That is why the safety of deep-fried food depends on the fat safety and quality, on the level of fat absorption, and on the intensity of oxidative changes of fat during storage. This article contains the results of the research, which demonstrate that in order to insure the safety of fast-food products it is necessary to introduce into normative and technical documents the following standards: peroxide value, acid value, content of oxidation products insoluble in petroleum ether, and content of epoxides in fat phase and to food mass. According to the current norms on content of oxidation products in deep-frying fat and allowed level of fat absorption by a food product equal to 20%, the recommended level of oxidation products insoluble in petroleum ether for French fries is not higher than 0.2% to the food mass. As a temporary measure we can recommend the level of epoxides not higher than 5 mmol/kg to the food mass. It is important to control the content of trans-isomers in deepfrying fat, it must be not higher than 2% of fatty acid mass. In order to lower fat absorption during French fries production it is recommended to use halffinished products of high readiness, and to air fry.

Anniversary

Toregeldy Sharmanovich Sharmanov (to the 85th anniversary of the birth)

Annotation
Information

Information of the XIX International Congress «Phytopharm 2015»

Annotation
In memory of Anastasiya Pavlovna Shitskova

Annotation
In memory of Aleksandr Leopoldovich Pozdnyakov

Annotation

Journals of «GEOTAR-Media»