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Reviews

L-carnitine: properties and perspectives for use in sports practice

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The analysis of published data relating to the use in sports practice metabolic non-doping agent – L-carnitine. The review discusses some aspects of the mechanism of its action on the human body. The information is given about the role of carnitine in the energy processes, mechanisms of carnitine deficiency. On the basis of the literature is given scientific rationale for applying this metabolite in athletes, particularly with cardiovascular and immune disorders.

Effect of extrusion on the retention of amino acids and the nutritional value of the protein

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The data of the literature on the impact factors of the extrusion cooking on physical and chemical properties of food proteins, biological value and digestibility have been discussed. Extrusion cooking is a high temperature short-time process, characterizing by a minimal loss of nutrients and biologically active substances compared to other methods of heat treatment of food. Studies of the properties of protein-containing products, protein isolates and concentrates in the extrusion are examined in different ways: the inactivation of antinutritional factors; improvement in digestibility and availability; changes in the content and chemical modification of amino acids; Maillard reactions involving amino acids; mutual enrichment of protein mixtures during the composite food extrusion; formation of functional technological properties of the extruded protein products.

Biochemistry of nutrition

Effects of rutin on protective capacity in rats

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The purpose of the study was to determine effects of rutin dietary administration on the activity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant status. The study has been carried out on 3 groups of male Wistar rats (n=8 in each), with initial body weight 100–120 g. Animals of the control group (1st group) received standard semi-synthetic diet, the experimental groups – the same diet with rutin in the amount of 40 mg/kg b.w. (2nd group) or 400 mg/kg b.w. (3rd group). The duration of the experiment was 2 weeks. In rat liver the activity of quinone reductase (QR), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), glutathioneS-transferase (GST), ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity of CYP1A1, methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (MROD) activity of CYP1A2, testosterone 6β-hydroxylase (6β-TG) activity of CYP3A, total antioxidant activity (AOA) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content have been investigated. The expression of genes CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP3A has been measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The stability of lysosome membranes was estimated by the change of unsedimentable activity of lysosomal enzymes – arylsulfatase, β-galactosidase and β-glucuronidase. Rutin administration led to dose-dependent increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In rats of the 3rd group received high-rutin diet the activity of QR, HO-1, PON-1 and GST increased by 68, 29, 17 and 22%, respectively, compared to the control (1st group); MDA level and AOA have not changed. Activity of EROD and MROD in liver microsomes of rats treated with rutin at a dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. (2nd group) increased by 33 and 58%, respectively, with a moderate increase in mRNA level of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. Increasing the dose of rutin up to 400 mg/kg b.w. (3rd group) resulted in the decrease of the degree of EROD and MROD activation by 18 and 15%, respectively, compared to the 2nd group. Rutin had no significant effect on the activity of 6β-TG and on the expression of CYP3A1 gene. Rutin dietary administration led to dose-dependent reduction of the unsedimentable activity of lysosomal enzymes, indicating the strengthening of the stability of lysosomal membranes. Thus, the obtained results showed that in healthy, intact rats high doses of rutin in the diet moderately but statistically significantly activate enzyme systems responsible for the protective and adaptive capacity of the organism.

Diet treatment

Actual sanitary, epidemiological and hygienic aspects of a dietitian’s activities in stationary medical institutions

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The article shows the relevance of the main areas of dietitians’ training to sanitary and epidemiological and hygienic issues of organization of clinical nutrition in stationary medical institutions (MIs) at training and refresher courses on dietetics. The attention is focused on the new legislative, policy and regulatory instruments, sanitary and epidemiological and hygienic requirements, providing high quality, safety and efficacy of nutritional therapy in MIs. The role of dietitian in the organization of clinical nutrition is highlighted. There were set out rights and responsibilities of a dietitian as a representative of MI under inspections by Rospotrebnadzor bodies; the demands, put forward by these bodies to the tested object, and actions, taken by them.

Hygiene of nutrition

Lead toxicity in its joint administration with the aluminium oxide nanoparticles to rats

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In this paper we studied the effect of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles (NPs) on the accumulation and biomarkers of toxic action of lead (Pb) when co-administered to rats in subacute experiment. 36 Wistar rats with initial body weight 120–140 g were divided into 4 groups. Animal of group 1 (control group) were given distilled water by gavage. Rats in group 2 received Pb acetate solution in a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight (based on Pb), animal in the 3rd and 4th groups additionally to this received suspension of Al2O3 NPs in doses of 1 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The experiment lasted 22 days. Body and organ weight, standard haematologic parameters, protein, creatinine, uric acid level, aminotransferase activity (ALT and AST) in serum, urinary 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) concentration were measured. Apoptosis of hepatocytes was studied by flow cytometry. Pb content was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. It has been shown that the administration of Al2O3 NPs together with Pb resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in the relative weight of the kidneys (0.88±0.03% and 0.94±0.06% vs. 0.74±0.02% and 0.85±0.01% in control and group 1). The excretion of 5-ALA in the urine of animals treated with lead acetate significantly (p <0.001) increased compared to the animals of group 1 (0.80±0.08 μmol/l); while any dependence of this parameter on the dose of Al2O3 NPs was absent (p>0.05) (group 2: 4.54±0.56 μmol/l; group 3: 7.34±1.35 μmol/l; group 4: 5.71±1.74 μmol/l). The hemoglobin content was significantly reduced in animals of groups 2–4 (134.0±2.9; 133.6±1.8 and 129.9±2.9 g/l) compared to the animals of the control group (144.6±1.5 g/l), the dependence of this parameter on the dose of Al2O3 NPs was also absent. A marked and significant increase of the level of glucose has been noticed on the background of the Al2O3and NPs (7,46±0,49 и 8,24±0,80 vs. 6,28±0,34 mmol/l in group 2), and its level went beyond physiological norms in the 4th group and ANOVA indicated the influence of Al2O3 NPs administration. The toxic effects of lead on hematological parameters of blood on the background of the Al2O3 and NPs weren’t weakened, and in the case of hematocrit even enhanced, as evidenced by one-way analysis of variance (p<0.05). When administered together with the Al2O3 Pd accumulated in increased amounts in the liver [up to 1.96±0.25 (group 3) and 2.16±0.23 (group 4) vs. 1.17±0.19 (group 2) mg/kg] (p<0.05). Thus, Al2O3 NPs possibly presented as a contaminant in food can enhance the bioavailability of lead and some indices of its toxic action.

Gender and age characteristics and the trends in prevalence of obesity in the adult population in Russia during the 1994–2012 period

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The analysis of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult age and sex groups of the Russian population in the dynamics of observation from 1994 to 2012 was based on anthropometric measurements of weight and height in Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. The mean values of body mass index (BMI) and the frequency of obesity (BMI>30.0) of the entire population have been increased during the observation period. The analyzing the data by gender revealed a significant increase in the frequency of obesity mainly among men, especially in the period 2005–2012, whereas among women increased incidence of obesity was negligible. The most rapid increase in the frequency of overweight and obesity in men noted in the age period of 20–30 years, and further increase in frequency of overweight and obesity with age were negligible. The rate of overweight and obesity in women had almost linear increase in the age period of 20–60 years. Comparative analysis of the prevalence of obesity showed that the obtained values for the 2000–2012 period were close to those characteristic of the developed world in recent decades. The growth of obesity rate in the general adult population in 2000–2005 and the 2005–2012 was 0.4% per year. At the same time, men showed a significant acceleration of the growth rate of obesity in the period 2005 to 2012 (0.61% per year) compared with the period 2000–2005 (0.44% per year). Increase in the frequency of obesity was observed in all regions in 2000 to 2012. The data should be considered as a rationale for research into the causes of gender differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the first place to find differences in the peculiarities of dietary intake between men and women at different ages of life, leading to the development of overweight and obesity.

Monitoring the nutritional status of the residents of St. Petersburg

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The purpose of the study was to analyze the diet of the population of St. Petersburg from different social and age groups and justify organizational-methodological ways to improve it. 1200 inhabitants 18 years old and over (674 women, 526 men) were interviewed using questionnaires. One-third of St. Petersburg population did not adhere to the recommended 3–4 meals per day, taking meal 2 times per day or less (21.7%) or 5 times per day or more (11.3%). The young (18–29 years old) and socially active residents 1.5–2 fold more likely than pensioners (13.8%) fed 2 times per day. Women 2.2 fold more frequently than men fed 5 times per day. Young people (20%) and socially active persons (24.4%) prefer not to have breakfast or take it 2–3 times per week compared with 9.6% pensioners. Supper as the main mealtimes called 27.8% women, that is 1.4 fold more likely than men. Thus, a great part of the population in the young and socially active adulthood violates proper diet, and women more often as compared to men. This can lead to disruption of the metabolic processes, increasing the risk of nutrition-related diseases, a decrease of efficiency and reduced life expectancy. This raises the feasibility of establishing of healthy eating offices based on health centers or clinics in St. Petersburg.

Micronutrients in nutrition

The content of selen in blood plasma in patients with acute Q-wave myocardial infarction

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The level of blood plasma selenium was analyzed by microfluorimetric method in inpatients and out-patients with acute coronary syndrome with ST-elevation resulting in acute Q-wave myocardial infarction. 72 patients, 40–75 years old, with acute Q-wave myocardial infarction were followed during a month. The initial decreased concentration of blood plasma selenium was recorded in most patients in the acute period of the myocardial infarction: deficiency of the microelement (<90 mcg/l) was found in 30 subjects, the critical ranges (<70 mcg/l) were stated in 33 patients. Just 2 patients had optimal concentration and 7 patients had a suboptimal one (90–114 mcg/l). Blood plasma level of the microelement increased in 2 weeks after myocardial infarction (in subacute stage) but it was still within deficient or critical levels. No difference was detected in selen concentration depending on gender, age, location on myocardial infarction, accompanying diseases, presence of some risk factors (smoking, alcohol abuse, hereditary predisposition to coronary artery disease). At the same time we revealed a significant Spearman rank correlation in patients with Q-wave myocardial infarction between basal level of blood serum selenium on the one hand, and electrocardiography indices (reflecting the rate of myocardial lesion and necrosis), echocardiography data (which characterize myocardium reparation processes and remodeling), CPK (a prognostic marker of the myocardial necrosis), HDL-cholesterol (lipid profile index), blood potassium level and BMI on the other.

Sufficiency with water-soluble vitamins and state of bone in pregnant women

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Vitamin status and bone strength have been estimated in 91 pregnant women (29.3±4.6 years old) from Moscow by non-invasive methods. Sufficiency with vitamins C, B2, B6 has been evaluated by morning urinary excretion of ascorbic acid, riboflavin and 4-piridoxic acid determined by visual titration and fluorimetric methods. The rate of bone resorption has been measured by the ratio of urinary calcium and creatinine, determined by complexometric titration and spectrophotometrically. The study of the bone strength has been conducted using an ultrasonic densitometer (the speed of the ultrasonic waves along the cortical layer). The lack of vitamin C was found in 20.4% of the women surveyed, vitamin B2 – in 27.4%. Vitamin B6 deficiency was detected most frequently (90%). Excretion of vitamins B2 and B6 in women in the third trimester of pregnancy was lower as compared with the women in the first and second trimester. In 53.3% of the women surveyed an increase in urinary excretion of calcium per creatinine has been observed. Excretion of group B vitamins (especially vitamin B6, 1.75 fold, p<0.05) in women taking vitamin supplements was higher compared to nontaking vitamins that indicates the better sufficiency of the organism with these vitamins. Among women who took vitamin complexes, inadequate supply with water-soluble vitamins С, В2 and В6 was detected less frequently (the difference was significant for vitamin B2) than among women who did not intake vitamin complexes (in 11.9, 27.7 and 42.4% vs 16.1, 54.8 and 48.8 %). The rate of bone resorption (Сa/creatinine) in women taking vitamins was smaller (0.19±0.09 vs 0.24±0.14, р>0.05). Ca/creatinine ratio was within normal range in 40% of women who intake vitamins, while in women not taking vitamins – only in 22.2%; this value exceeded the upper limit of norm in the rest. The strength of bone was broken in women in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, having worse supply of vitamins. The percentage of agreement of the results of osteopenia diagnosis assessment (ultrasound densitometry and urinary Сa/creatinine) was 42.2%. Thus, the conclusion has been confirmed that the evaluation of the status of bone is possible only basing on the results of determination of several parameters.

Efficiency of application of the enriched bakery products in children nutrition

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The results of the research devoted to an assessment of efficiency of application of the enriched bakery products in nutrition of school students have been presented. Composition and technology of the enriched bakery products have been developed. The influence of enrichers on the basis of proteins of whey, plasma of blood, hemoglobin, calcium and iodinated components and food fibers on the nutritive and energy value of bakery products has been defined. The consumption of 100 g of the enriched bakery products provides a significant amount of protein – 12.5–23% of the recommended daily intake (RDI), to satisfy daily need of school students in calcium up to 13.4%, in iron – up to 20%, iodine – 12,5% and food fibers – 17.3%. When comparing blood hemoglobin content in school students after inclusion in a diet of the enriched bakery products, the lack of significant changes of this indicator in children with normal hemoglobin content has been determined that is the confirmation of safety of use of the products enriched with hem iron. At the same time, normalization of hemoglobin level in children (9.7%) with the initial threshold and lowered hemoglobin indicators is noted. The reliable increase in the content of hemoglobin in this group of children from 112±3 to 131±6 g/l was established (р0.05). Positive dynamics of the content of iodine in urine at school students with initial deficiency of iodine under administration of the bread enriched with iodine has been defined. Ioduria indicators authentically increased from 88±10 to 116±9 mkg/l (р0.05). Before diet correction in 53 from 59 children surveyed in the Stavropol region, a mild lack of iodine has been revealed (iodine levels less than 100 mkg/l urine), while after bread intake – only in 7 (11.9%) students.

Dynamics of elements distribution in blood, depending on age, by example of Moscow Region residents

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Elemental status of a person determines the qualitative and quantitative content of chemical elements in the human body. This marker allows us to estimate the level of imbalance of chemical elements and therefore health risks. The method for simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of 67 elements in biomaterials has been proposed. The detailed elemental analysis of whole blood samples of 1711 healthy people (age range 0–100 years) of Moscow Region has been performed. A number of patterns of age-related changes of the element status conditionally healthy people has been estimated. Na content in the samples increased with the age of the person. Presumably, this result reflects the studied populations nutrition disorders associated with immoderate consumption of table salt. The maximum content of Ca was observed in blood samples of people age range 0–20 years (66–69 mg/kg), the Ca content in the blood samples of people age range 26–85 years was significantly lower (59–62 mg/kg). The maximum decrease of Ca was detected in blood samples of people age range of 85–100 years (57–59 mg/kg). This reduction in the concentration of Ca, apparently due to age-related changes of Ca balance, correlates with decrease of bone mineral density and bone mass. Iron content decreased in the blood samples of people age range 10–100 years from 480 to 390 mg/kg. Selenium content in blood of people age range 0–25 years linearly increased, remained stable high in the blood of people age range 25–55 years (0,13–0,136 mg/kg) and then gradually decreased. A graph of As content dependence from a person’s age is a mirror image of the graph of Se content dependence from a person’s age, which is evidence of the antagonistic effects of these elements. Graphic changes in the content of rare earth elements Eu and Ho reflect the unidirectional trend of these elements accumulation. The maximum content of these elements was observed in blood samples of people age range of 25–65 years. Perhaps a reduction of Eu and Ho in the age range 65–100 years age reflects a downward trend in bone mineral density and decrease in bone mass, which correlates with the Ca content in the blood depending on the age of people. The data obtained showed a significant increase of U and V in the blood of people age range of 85–100 years. The compounds of vanadium and uranium normally relatively easily filtered by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. This result seems to demonstrate age-related deterioration in the functioning of the excretory system. A list of recommendations for nutrition correction of elemental imbalance of the observed population has been proposed.

Assessment of efficiency of use of the developed supplement containing selenium on laboratory animals

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The article presents the results of a study of the effectiveness of wheat flour containing selenium in organic form. The organic form of trace element was achieved by transformation of selenium in selenium-methionine (Se-Met) at germination of wheat grains, moistened with a solution of sodium selenite. To determine the effectiveness of seleniumcontaining supplements experimental investigations were carried out on Long white rats with initial body weight 50±2 g. The duration of the experiment was 30 days. The research model included four groups of animals: control group – animals were fed a complete vivarium diet; group 1 – a model of selenium deficiency, which was achieved by feeding selenium-deficient food (grain grown in the Chita region of the Trans-Baikal Territory Zabaikalsky Krai); group 2 – animals were administered selenium supplement in the form of enriched flour (0.025 μg Se per 50 g body weight of the animal) on the background of selenium-deficient diet; group 3 – animals were treated with a high dose of selenium in the form of a solution of sodium selenite intragastrically through a tube (0.15 μg Se per 50 g body weight).Selenium-containing additive on the background of selenium-deficient diet had a positive impact on the appearance and behavior of animals, the body weight gain per head after 10 days in group 2 amounted to 47.9 g that was 4 fold larger than in rats of group 1. The study of selenium content showed that in the blood, liver, lungs and heart of rats treated with the additive on the background of selenium-deficient diet (group 2), selenium level did not differ from those in the control group and was within physiological norms. The experiment showed that selenium deficiency and rich in selenium rich diet has a significantly different effect on the studied parameters of oxidative-antioxidative status. The activity of blood glutathione peroxidase in animals of group 2 (did not differ from that in group 3) was almost 2 fold higher than in blood of control animals and was seven fold higher than that in blood of animals kept on selenium deficient diet (35.57±3,36 μmol/g per 1 min). A similar dependence was established when studying the activity of glutathione reductase. It has been revealed that the oxidative-antioxidative status of animals from experimental groups 1 and 3 was lower than from control group and group 2. Thus, blood antioxidant activity in animals receiving diet with selenium deficiency and high dose of this trace element, was less than in the control group by 43.1 and 25.4%, respectively. Liver MDA level in animals kept on a diet with selenium deficiency exceeded the value of this indicator in the group 2 more than 1.5 fold (110.5 ± 10.70 vs. 72.5 ± 4.30 nmol/mg). When using selenium-containing supplement, this parameter decreased to the control level. In blood plasma of the animals of group 2 total antioxidant activity increased by about five times as compared with the indicators of animals kept on selenium-deficient diet, and was 25% higher than in control. Thus, the introduction of a selenium supplements in the deficient diet contributes to the development of endogenous antioxidants that suppress lipid oxidation. High biological effectiveness of supplements containing organic form of selenium has been proved.

Anniversary

Andrey Valerievich Vasil’ev (to the 65th anniversary of birthday

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Minkail Magomed Gadzhievich Gapparov (to the 75th anniversary of birthday)

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Information

Supplement to International Research-to-Practice Conference «Sports nutrition and sports medicine» (June 1–2, 2015, Moscow), published in the supplement to the journal «Problems of Nutrition» N 3, 2015

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Journals of «GEOTAR-Media»