The age-dependent nutritional status and resting metabolism in overweight and obese children have been examined. The study included 625 children of 2,5–17 years old. Patients were divided into three groups: 1st – 2,5–7 years old (n=49), 2nd – 8–12 years old (n=204), 3rd – 13–17 years old (n=372). The diagnosis of overweight and obesity was based on CDC criteria: children with 85–94 BMI percentile according to age and gender had overweight, BMI ≥95 percentile – obesity. Anthropometry, bioelectric impedance analysis and indirect respiratory calorimetry were performed; lipid and carbohydrate parameters were measured. The fat mass percentages in children of studed groups were 41,3Ѓ}1,9, 39,8Ѓ}0,7 and 42,3Ѓ}0,4%, the mean percent of fat mass excess – 163,6Ѓ}26,2, 113,7Ѓ}8,3 and 134,9Ѓ}8,2% respectively, p>0,05.
Prevalence of dyslipidemia in children increased with age: lipid metabolism disorders were revealed in 28,6, 49,0
и 53,2% children of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd groups respectively. The mean HDL level in the 1st and 2nd groups was significantly higher, and triglycerides – lower than in the 3rd group. The correlation of HDL level and breastfeeding duration (r1=0,94, p<0,05) was found in the 1st group of children. Increased insulin level was revealed in 38,8% children in the 1st group (mean 12,8Ѓ}1,4 μIU/ml), 62,2% children in the 2nd group (21,1Ѓ}0,7 μIU/ml) and 64,8% children in the 3rd group (25,1Ѓ}0,9 μIU/ml); increased HOMA – in 36,7% (4,32Ѓ}0,6), 62,2% (4,65Ѓ}0,17) and 59,1% (5,56Ѓ}0,21) respectively. The negative correlation of insulin and HOMA level with breastfeeding duration (r1=−0,38 and −0,37, respectively, p<0,05) was found in the 1st group of children. Prevalence of hyperuricemia increased from 13% in the 1st group to 21,1% in the 2nd and 44,1% in the 3rd group. Prevalence and degree of resting metabolism changes increased with age and had tendency to the shift of proportion of energy-intensive substrates (fats and carbohydrates) to deceleration of carbohydrate oxidation (in 32, 50, 55,1% of children) and compensatory fat oxidation acceleration (8, 28,4 and 34,7% respectively). Mean fat oxidation rate levels significantly differed between groups and increased with age (48,38Ѓ}7,14, 54,29Ѓ}3,06 and 78,43Ѓ}2,89 g/day in children of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd groups respectively, p<0,001).
The mean level of carbohydrate oxidation rate in the 3rd group of children was lower than normal value (p<0,01). Resting energy expenditure was lower in the 2nd and 3rd groups of children.