Physiology and biochemistry nutrition
Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on antioxidant capacity in rats
Dietary administration of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPA + DHA, 1,2:1) at dose 0,3 or 1 g/kg bw during 4 weeks led to minor (by 14% and 17%, p<0,05) decrease of serum antioxidant capacity and serum level of vitamin E (by 30% and 31%, p<0,05) and the activity of paraoxonase-1 (by 14% at 0,3 g/kg bw, p<0,05). The activity of antioxidant enzymes in liver increasedin a dose-dependent manner. At higher dose of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids a 45% increase in the activity of paraoxonase-1 (p<0,05), 21% – heme oxygenase-1 (p>0,05), 68% – quinone reductase (p<0,05), 19% – glutathione S-transferase (p<0,05) compared to the control group was found. The direct relationship between activities of enzymes and increase of MDA level in liver (by 47 and 107%, p<0,05) was found. Selected doses of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids had no significant effects on total liver antioxidant capacity, microsomes NADPH-Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation and lysosomal membranes stability.
Hematologic indices in different age Wistar rats, receiving a balanced semi-synthetic vivary diet
This paper presents the results of research of hematologic parameters of male Wistar rats 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 months age, which received a balanced semisynthetic diet. Studies were carried out at the Hematology analyzer Coulter AC TTM 5 diff OV (Beckman Coulter, USA) with the program, specially developed for the study of rats’ blood. According to the results of research, was found a statistically significant increased of the number of red blood cells; the concentration of hemoglobin and hematocrit in animals 2-6 months compared with rats, 1 month age. With age, there is a decrease of the mean corpuscular volume and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin. The number of white blood cells in rats of 2–4 months age are significantly higher than in rats of 1 and 6 months age. The number of neutrophils and eosinophils in rats of to the 2 month are of is lover than once in rats of 1 month age, and increases values in animals of 6 months age. The number of lymphocytes has the highest value in the rat of 2–3 months age and the minimum value is that in animals of 6 months age. With increasing of the age of the animals the reduction of contents of monocytes was noted. The content of platelets and the platelet crit in the blood of rats 6 months age is statistically greater than those in 1-month age animals. The average volume of platelet is the stable index, with age does not change.
Comparative evaluation of the influence of homogenate and enzymatic hydrolyzate of mussels’ meat in the growth rats and their protein assimilation
The experiment in vivo by a comparative assessment of the biological value of peptide fractions in structure of enzymatic hydrolyzates of mussels’ meat and protein in structure of homogenate of mussels’ meat (raw material) was carried out. The experiment was made in growing male rats of Wistar line, who got semi-synthetic diet with a source of protein presented by homogenate of mussels meat and enzymatic hydrolyzate of mussels meat. Throughout the study were defined the individual parameters of palatability of feed and increase of body weight of each animal; during the so-called exchange period, besides the listed parameters, were taken into account the quantity of nitrogen removed with excrement. Biological value of protein in structure of homogenate of mussels meat and peptide fractions in structure of enzymatic hydrolyzate of mussels meat was evaluated by determining the coefficient of efficiency of the protein and true digestibility of the protein. The findings show a high biological value of new source of protein – enzymatic hydrolyzate of mussels meat, the prospectivity of the further researches by evaluating a possible antistress properties of enzymatic hydrolyzate of mussels meat, as well as the opportunity of its use as a component of preventive food product of a broad spectrum of action.
Effect of indole-3-carbinol and rutin on rats’ provision by vitamins’ A and E with different fat content in its diet
Effect of indole-3-carbinol (I-3-C) and rutin (R) supplementation on vitamins A and E status of growing Wistar rats, receiving for 6 or 4 week semi-synthetic diets with different levels (1, 11 and 31%) of fat (lard and sunflower oil at a ratio of 1:1) has been studied. The content of vitamin E was 6, 9 and 15 IU, vitamin A – 400 IU in 100 g of ration. Against the various fat content during the last 7 or 14 days of the experiment rats received respectively I-3-C (20 mg per 1 kg of body weight per day) or R (0,4% of the feed weight). Rat tissues were analyzed for vitamins A (retinol and retinyol palmitate) and E (alpha-tocopherol) by HPLC. Reducing fat content in diet from 11 to 1% was associated with significant (p<0,05) decrease of hepatic retinyl palmitate and alpha-tocopherol (1,6–1,7 times) with constant plasma concentration of retinol and alpha-tocopherol. Raising fat content from 11 to 31% , in contrast, led to increased levels of hepatic retinyl palmitate and alphatocopherol respectively by 13% (p=0,248) and 89% (p=0,006) and plasma ROL of 26% (p=0,024), while the plasma concentration of alpha- tocopherol has not changed. I-3-C and R do not affect the availability of vitamin E in rats, regardless of the fat content in the diet. With excess fat content (31%) in the diet, supplementation of I-3-C and R lowered hepatic RP by 22–52% (p<0,05) compared to rats receiving a diet with adequate fat. Adding of I-3-C to the high-fat diets resulted to a significant reduction of vitamin A concentration in blood plasma by 12% (p=0,024) and in liver by 37% (p=0,002).
Vitamin D status in population of the Perm Territory and Komi and Udmurtia Republics
Seasonal and geographical variability in blood serum concentration of 25-OHD3 among the residents of the Perm Territory, Komi and Udmurtia Republics (327 subjects in total) were investigated. The mean values of serum 25-OHD3 concentrations in 13–16 years old adolescents vary from 31,1 to 49,6 nmol/l, in adults – from 39,7 to 47,7 nmol/l. They are within the range of variation reported in other groups in Russian Federation and North-Western Europe. Seasonal fluctuations of vitamin D content are more expressed in adolescents. The geographical distribution of the measures does not agree with the conventional notion that it has a latitudinal (South–North) variability gradient.
Assessment of safety and effectiveness of dietary fermented milk product using in the presence of dysbiosis in people with overweight and obesity
The study was aimed at assessment of quality, safety and nutritional efficiency of consuming fermented milk product prepared on the basis of symbioticcal ferment of two strains of acidophilic bacteria – Lactobacillius acidophilius D-75 and Lactobacillius acidophilius D-76, by two groups of patients with overweight and obesity combined with dysbiosis. Including fermented milk product into diet proved to have positive nutritional effect. It can be recommended to include probiotic fermented milk product into the diet of patients with such pathology.
Hygiene of nutrition
Disinfection problems in food hygiene
Based on the main tasks of hygienic support of balanced diet of the population, we consider different issues of disinfection contribution in: food safety, prevention of the emergence and dissemination of relevant infectious and noninfectious diseases, quality disruption of foodstuffs under various biological pathogens (bacteria, protozoa, helminthes, arthropods, rodents), which are the causative agents of human disease vectors or natural reservoirs of pathogens. The need to involve the disinfection competence in ensuring the safety and security of canned food, as well as the products long-term storage is stressed. Paper dealswith factors, key for effectiveness of disinfection and, therefore, epidemiological and hygienic safety of the equipment and facilities, food industries and food service. We consider the need to take into account advantageous properties and shortcomings of some groups of disinfectants in terms both of microbicidal effectiveness and of their toxic safety, compatibility with the materials of processed objects, ease of use, etc. The focus is made on the need to select some disinfection technology in terms of the primary objective and current conditions taking the type and attributes of the relevant biological pathogens into account.
Tolerance in the substantiation of the maximum allowable content of antibiotics in food products
Provides the ability to use the principle of tolerance in substantiation of the maximum permissible levels (MDU) residual amounts of antibiotics of tetracycline group (ATG) in meat and dairy products. Using the data of monitoring research of food products, carried out in 2005–2011, in the system of Rospotrebnadzor was conducted analysis of the levels of tolerance of residual quantities of ATG in the meat, meat by-products, chicken eggs, milk, dairy and other products. The conclusion was made that the Russian Federation hygienic norm MDU of ATG of meat and dairy products – 0,01 mg/kg (SanPiN 220.127.116.1104-10) – justified, consistent with the principle of tolerance and reduces the risk of negative consequences for the population.
Toxicological-hygienic assessment of the low-alcohol tonic (energizing) carbonated drinks
The impact of the low-alcohol tonic (energizing) carbonated drinks on biochemical and hematological indices, on the functional state of the central nervous system and cardiovascular system was studied within the experiment over the outbred white male rats. The gained results were compared to indices of animals receiving the same concentrated solution of ethanol used for drinks preparation as well as to figures of intact group animals. The results gained from all compared animals groups had no significant differences.
Real nutrition of adults and children population of Aktyubinsk Region of Republic of Kazakhstan
Aim: study real nutrition of adults and children population of Aktyubinsk Region of Republic of Kazakhstan. Materials and methods: 260 adults aged of 18–59 and 128 children aged of 10–17 years were under investigation. The adults were differentiated into three age groups: 18–29, 30–39 and 40–59 years. For studying real nutrition a daily energy need, protein content in rations, fats, carbohydrate and mineral substance – magnesium, iron, copper, zinc – were assesses by 24-hours nutrition reproduction method. Investigation was made by questionnaire of observed groups. Results: according to power price and protein content the adults feeding is value and due to protein, content 10–12% from necessary daily energy is provided. In children and adolescents food ration of protein is 1,5 times below normal, real power price is 1,3 times below normal. Fats take a considerable part of food ration both in adults and in children and their amount is increased in 47,4% of men, 45,9% in women and about 50% in children instead of 30% of daily energy. Carbohydrates content in men and women is 1,4 times lower, they cover only 41,8% and 42,1% of energy while they must compose 56% from daily dose. Acute deficiency of carbohydrates intake is noticed in children in two times and power supply composes 39% against 55% of normal. Content mineral substances (magnesium, iron, copper and zinc) in rations adults and children reduced.
Food value of cichorium Intybus
Cichorium intybus is an herbaceous perennial, known as a coffee substitute. It possesses a wide range of healing characteristics particularly due to inulin, one of its components. Inulin is a natural polysaccharide, a polyfructosane containing 27–35 fructose residues in furanose form and glucose residue. When inulin is in the alimentary tract it passes to the stomach and the small intestine unchangeable. In large intestine inulin is fermented by bifidobacteria and then converted in to a great number of short-chain fatty acids. Due to the process it stimulated the growth of bifidobacteria population and reduces that of pathogenic microorganisms. The increase of pool of healthy intestinal flora normalizes the passage of fieces masses through the intestine, improves immunologic status, regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The paper presents experimental and clinic studies confirming bifidogenic, immunogenic, anticancerous, hepatoprotective characteristics of inulin and cichorium intybus.
Colon lactoflora of rats with alimentary polyhypovitaminosis and modified fat component of diet
The examination was carried out on male Wistar rats with an initial weight 97–121 g. Influence of vitamin provision and composition of fat component in semisynthetic diet on the condition of lactoflora population of intestine were studied. The deficiency of vitamins was caused by fivefold decrease of amount of vitamin mixture added to the feed and by elimination of vitamin E from this mixture. The modification of fat component was made by substitution of sunflower oil for linseed oil in equal amount (the ratio of vegetable oil and animal fat (lard) was 1:1). Duration of the first phase of the experiment was 28 days. Vitamin deficiency in rats, receiving feed with sunflower oil, was accompanied by significant decrease of vitamins A, E, B1 and B2 in the liver, but did not affect the quantity of lactobacilli in caecum content of rats. Enrichment of the diet deficient in vitamins with polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids was associated with a statistically significant increase in number of lactobacilli in the intestine compared with the control group (9,78±0,08 opposite 8,82±0,33 lg CFU/g, р=0,018) and group of rats with vitamin deficiency (9,03±0,18 lg CFU/гg р=0,006). On the second stage, replenishment of vitamin deficiency was carried out in the next 14 days by increasing the amount of vitamin mixture to 70 and 200% of vitamin content from a diet in control group. The replenishment has not affected the number of caecum lactobacilli irrespectively of the dose of vitamins and fatty component.