Genetic approaches to nutrition personalization
The paper presents the results of studies conducted in recent years, which show that nutrients and bioactive food components, directly or indirectly regulate the functional activity of genes influencing gene transcriptome, proteome and metabolome. A definition of «nutrigenomics» – the science that emerged at the turn of nutrition and genetics, and studies the relationship of human nutrition with the characteristics of its genome in order to understand how food affects gene expression, and ultimately, on human health. It is shown that the cellular and molecular level, nutrients, first serving as a ligand, the receptors are transcription factors, and secondly, as a substrate or intermediate metabolites are incorporated into metabolic pathways whose products control the expression of genes and, thirdly, positive or negative effect on signaling pathways. We present results of their research, which characterize the rate of prevalence of polymorphisms of genes that are markers of risk for obesity. On the basis of domestic and foreign studies concluded that genetic markers can be used for the diagnosis and prognosis of alimentary-dependent diseases such as obesity, and as well as a predictor for the development of a personalized diet and forecast its performance.
Analysis of international programs of the hygienic monitoring of foodborne pathogens
The article gives an overview of information international networks of monitoring the microbiological food safety in the world. The most famous are the European Network of Food Safety (EFSN), Global network for disease surveillance, Foodborne (GFN), International Network for the determination of molecular subtypes of bacterial food patogens (PulseNet), International Network of Food Safety (INFOSAN). The network EFSN is engaged development of information database and of warning systems to assess food safety. GFN supervises of foodborne pathogens (Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli, S. typhi, Shigella, Listeria monocytogenes, C. botulinum) in food, biomaterials, samples of products from centers of infection. PulseNet International is a network of National and regional laboratory networks dedicated to tracking foodborne infections world-wide. Еach PulseNet laboratory utilizes standardized genotyping methods and sharing information in real-time. The resulting surveillance provides early warning of foodborne disease outbreaks. The International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN) is a global network emergency contact points for communication between the INFOSAN secretariat and national food safety authorities. In Russia, the contact point in the International Network INFOSAN is Rospotrebnadzor. Microbiological food safety is estimated by testing the finished product. This measure does not reflect the level and range of microbial contamination of food, does not provide a forecast of diseases caused by food. In conclusion, reported the need for the organization of monitoring of microbial food contaminants in Russia.
Physiology and biochemistry nutrition
The cell immunity in patients with arterial hypertension and obesity
In the present study the relative quantity subpopulations of lymphocytes, activated T- lymphocytes and CD95-antigen (Fas/APO-1) expression on lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of patients with arterial hypertension and obesity in comparison with the healthy persons was determined. The cells were analyzed by the method of flow cytometry using Beckman Coulter FC 500 cytometer. The following of cells subsets: CD19+, CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, CD3-CD16+СD56+, CD3+CD16+CD56+, CD3+CD25+, CD3+HLA-DR+, CD45+CD95+ were investigated. In this research was establish the rise of immunoregulatory index (CD3+CD4+/CD3+CD8+) in consequence of increase the percentages of T-helper and decrease the cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in patients with arterial hypertension and obesity in comparison with the healthy persons. In the peripheral blood of patients with arterial hypertension and obesity were observed a greater level of activated T-lymphocytes (CD3+CD25+, CD3+HLA-DR+), that reflect the increase activity of T-cell immunity. In these patients a greater level of NKT-cells (CD3+CD16+CD56+) and lymphocytes expression of CD95-antigen in comparison with the healthy persons also was noted. The direct correlation between the increased quantity of T-helper lymphocytes, activated T-lymphocytes, NKT-cells, lymphocytes expression of CD95-antigen, and index of body mass in patients with arterial hypertension and obesity was found.
Middle-chain fatty acids: their dietary content, physiology, specific metabolism and clinical application
Fatty acids (FA) , keep in food and organisms divide on FA as saturated which have no double bonds (DB), monoenic (1 DB), unsaturated (2 or 3 DB) and polyenic (4, 5, or 6 DB). Saturated and monoenic FA are used predominantly as oxidation and energy substrate, unsaturated as plasma membrane constituents, polyenic as precursors in eicosanoid and aminophospholipid production. Bearing in mind specific features of metabolism and transport in vivo, FA can be regarded as short-chain (C4–C8) and middle-chain (С10–С14), their etherification with glycerol yielding short triglycerides (TG) which are not associated with apoproteins, while long-chain FA form long TG which in enterocytes are structured into chylomicrons by apoВ-48. There are grounds to believe that a) outflow of middle-chain FA as short TG from enterocytes into the portal vein bed that includes the omentum veins and b) outflow of long-chain FA as chylomicron TG via d. thoracicus into major veins of systemic circulation are associated with pathogenesis of isolated omental obesity syndrome and metabolic syndrome, which wet by obesity.
Antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate
The process of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in biological membranes of cells is carried out by free radical mechanism, a feature of which is the interaction of radicals with other molecules. In this work we investigated the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate, obtained by the cation-exchange chromatography on KM-cellulose from raw cow’s milk, in vitro and in vivo. In biological liquids, which are milk, blood serum, fetal fluids, contains a complex of biologically active substances with a unique multifunctional properties, and which are carrying out a protective, antimicrobial, regenerating, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, regulatory and others functions. Contents of the isolate were determined electrophoretically and by its biological activity. Cationic whey protein isolate included lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, pancreatic RNase, lysozyme and angeogenin. The given isolate significantly has an antioxidant effect in model experimental systems in vitro and therefore may be considered as a factor that can adjust the intensity of lipid oxidation. In model solutions products of lipid oxidation were obtained by oxidation of phosphatidylcholine by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a source of iron. The composition of the reaction mixture: 0,4 mM H2O2; 50 mcM of hemin; 2 mg/ml L-α-phosphatidylcholine from soybean (Sigma, German). Lipid peroxidation products were formed during the incubation of the reaction mixture for two hours at 37 °C. In our studies rats in the adaptation period immediately after isolation from the nest obtained from food given orally native cationic whey protein isolate at the concentration three times higher than in fresh cow’s milk. On the manifestation of the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate in vivo evidence decrease of lipid peroxidation products concentration in the blood of rats from the experimental group receipt whey protein isolate in dos 0,6 mg/g for more than 20% (p<0,05) with oral feeding. Thus, significantly cationic whey protein isolate has an antioxidant effect in model experimental systems, and so can be considered as a factor that can regulate the intensity of lipid oxidation.
The effect of fatty component of diet and coenzyme Q10 on rat sufficiency with vitamins-antioxidans in chronic experiments
The full replacement of fatty component of a diet (10% of feed mass, sunflowerseed oil and lard 1:1) on enriched with α-tocopherol acetate fish oil or on linen oil under additional coenzyme Q10 intake (100 mg per 1 kg body weight) within 12 months led to a significant vitamin A blood serum decrease on 23–31%, 2–2,8 fold fall of vitamin Е blood serum level and vitamin C rat liver diminution due to significant dehydroascorbic acid reduction on 28–45%. In both cases, the intensification of POL was not observed. The use of palm-oil as a fatty component led to a significant vitamin A blood serum decrease on 31%, but didn’t effect on all other investigated parameters. The deterioration of antioxidant status indexes (MDA in blood serum and liver and diene conjugates in serum), observed after 3 months of the additional PUFA ω-3 introduction into the diet under coenzyme Q10 intake, after the 12-month use of modified diet leveled. Age increase of vitamin A blood serum concentration in rats fed diets with high PUFA ω-3 content was 2-fold higher and amounted to 68–78% compared to 31–33% in the control group of rats and rats treated with palm oil. α-Tocopherol serum content was significantly increased in all groups with increasing of rats age. 8,9 fold elevation was observed in the group of animals treated with linseed oil, and 2,5–3,2 fold in all other groups. The conclusion about the necessity of supplementary intake of vitamin E or a complex of vitamins-antioxidants under enrichment of a diet with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been done.
Hygiene of nutrition
Influence of dioxide titanium nanoparticles on immune system indicators in rats
We investigated the possible influence of titanium dioxide TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) (rutile form) on immunological parameters in rats. The experiment was carried out on 40 male Wistar rats, separated on 4 groups. Rats of 1 and 2 groups received intragastrically deionized water, 3 and 4 groups – aqueous dispersion of NPs in dose of 100 mg/kg body weight every day. Rats of 2 and 4 groups were immunized intraperitoneally with 100 mkg egg ovalbumin (OVA) on the 1st, 3rd and 5th days of the experiment. On day 21 was administered an additional 10 mkg OVA. In this study were assessed the concentration of specific IgG antibodies (humoral immune response), levels of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α, expression of lymphocyte antigens CD45RA, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD161a, phagocytic activity of neutrophils, lymphocyte apoptosis, hematology characteristics of blood. The studies showed that intra-gastric administration of rats with NPs in rutile form generates significant increase of humoral immune response against food antigen (p<0,05 according to the Student t-test). In the analysis of leukogram it was found a significant decrease of immature cells in immunized animals when exposed to NPs. Administration of NPs resulted in a significant decrease of the relative numbers of B-lymphocytes in immunized animals, and generated a significant increase in the phagocytic activity of peripheral blood neutrophils. Stimulation index of phagocytosis significantly increased at reception of NP by non-sensitized animal s. Effect s of N P r utile on le vel s of c ytok ine production ( I L- 6 , I L-10, T N F- α), on hematological characteristics of blood were insignificant both in intact and immunized animals. Thus, it is shown the intragastric administration of NP rutile has some influence on the specific and nonspecific unit of immune system in immunized and intact rats.
Studies of effects of aluminum oxide nanoparticles after intragastric administration
Growing Wistar rats received intragastrically nanoparticles (NPs) of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) daily during 28 days at doses of 1 or 100 mg per kg body mass. There were studied body mass of animals, relative mass of internals, rate of protein macromolecules absorption in the gut, oxidative damage of DNA, pool of tissue thiols, activity of hepatic enzymes of xenobiotic detoxication system, biochemical and hematological blood indices, stability of lysosome membranes, condition of antioxidant defense system, apoptosis of hepatocytes. Conducted experiments didn’t reveal any marked toxic action of Al2O3 NPs on rats after 28 days of administration both in high and low dose. Among effects probably related to NPs influence on animals there were lowering of relative liver and lung masses, decrease of hepatic thiol pool, activity of CYP1A1 isoform in liver and glutathione reductase in erythrocytes, increase of diene conjugates of fatty acids in blood plasma. Said shifts were small in magnitude, didn’t come out of margins of physiological norm and didn’t show any distinct relation to NPs dose. However considering great importance of this nanomaterial as probable environmental contaminant the studies of it’s toxicity must be continued in conditions of low doses (less than 1 mg per kg body mass) for long period of time.
Phytoestrogenis properties of flaxseed lignans
The analysis of experimental, clinical and epidemiological data on the phytoestrogen properties of the components of flaxseed Linum Usitatissimum L., especially lignans and products of their biotransformation in humans and animals enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL) are presented. Flaxseed is the richest in the vegetable world source of lignans (up to 0,7–1,5% of dry weight of seed), among which prevails secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SIR-DG). Plant lignans are characterized as natural phytoestrogen that reduce the risk of hormonedependent cancers of breast, uterus and prostate. Anticancerogenic activity of flaxseed lignans due to antioxudant effect END and ENL in the human body. The antioxidant activity of SIR, END, ENL and SIR-DG is higher than that of vitamin E and the antioxidant activity of SIR, END and ENL higher than SIR-DG. On the basis of evidence-based biomedical researches on various models in experimental carcinogenesis, on the tumor cells in vitro, in clinical trials in patients with hormone-dependent tumors, and, finally, in epidemiological studies have proved the anticarcinogenic activity of the components of the flaxseed and validity of recommendations for preventive and curative use in hormone-dependent tumors.
Methodical aspects of hygienic safety assessment of polymeric materials in contact with foodstuffs
It was purposed new technique by capillary gas chromatography (GC) for the low level determination of monomer hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) in food simulants water from polymeric materials in contact with foodstuffs. Hexamethylenediamine, HN2-(CH2)6-NH2, is a monomer used in the manufacture of certain of polyamide plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with foodstuffs. Compound exhibits all the chemical properties of aliphatic amines, is an irritant, causing dermatitis, can accumulate in the body, the degree of human exposure to HMDA assigned to the 2nd class of hazard – the substance is highly dangerous. There was studied two methodological approaches pre-derivatization of compound for GC determination. The first approach involves conversion of the free diamine using ethyl chloroformate as derivatizing agent followed by analysis of the resulting diurethan by gas chromatography using a flame ionization and mass selective detection (HMDA was quantitated by selective ion monitoring at m/z 102, the lower detection limit of 1 ng). According to second methodological approach the water samples were mixed with sodium chloride and extracted with toluene, then derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride (60 min, 55 °C) to diamide, 1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7,0) was add to remove excess derivatizing agent, followed by analysis of resulting diamide by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (lower limit value 0,01 ng). Conformation of HMDA levels is carried out by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HMDA was quantitated by selective ion monitoring at m/z 126, the lower limit value of 0,1 ng). The optimal pre-derivatization of the second approach for the determination of low levels of HMDA in the water extracts. The range of measured concentrations of 0,005–0,5 mg/dm3, recovery 88–101%, the total error of measurement is 16%, the relative standard deviation is 1,85%. The method was tested in the study of aqueous extracts of the 10 random samples intended for food purchased in the consumer market. Shows the corresponding output level hexamethylenediamine requirements for products of this type.
Energy expenditure and food energy intake in different professional groups of N. Novgorod
In this paper we have studied the energy expenditure and food energy consumption of different professional groups of the adult population of the city N. Novgorod. Assessment of daily energy expenditure was performed using the coefficients of physical activity (CPA) in the working period, the free time and the total daily average activity. It is shown that the rest time averaged 40–50%, while physical activity time 60–50%, respectively. The ratio of physical activity duration to rest duration was similar in the groups with different CPA. It was revealed that the proportion of energy expenditure associated with physical activity accounted for 70–80% and was higher in the groups of occupations with a higher work intensity. It was found that on the amount of daily physical activity the CPA of the working period has a more significant impact than the CPA of the rest time. To estimate the energy intake we use data on the chemical composition and energy value of the diet. The use of the relationship of dietary energy to the value of basal metabolism allowed to compare the values of energy expenditure between different professional groups. The advantage of the new energy expenditure unit is that it, as well as the CPA, is practically independent of sex, age, height and weight. Analysis of the relationship of energy consumption and energy expenditure did not reveal any dependence on the activity in the working period or the daily physical activity. Based on these data we discuss the feasibility of normalization of the physical activity and the prevention of sedentary lifestyles.
Application of artificial substitutes of dairy fat
In article questions of influence on a human body of replacement of dairy fat on artificial substitutes of fat in dairy products are taken up. Possible ways of biotransformation of artificial substi-tutes of dairy fat by microflora of intestines and alternative approaches to manufacture of low-calorie dairy products are considered.
Composition and content of biologically active substances in rose hips
The paper studies the chemical composition of the powders obtained from the pulp with the skins and seeds of fruits of wild rose hips. Research results have shown that the main fraction of the powder is dietary fiber, powder of seeds of insoluble fiber in 1,6 and 2,3 higher than in the powder of the fruit with a thin skin and pulp, respectively. The greatest amount of carbohydrates and protein found in powders and pulp of the fruit with a thin skin, and lipids predominate in the powder from the seeds. Found that the lipid powder rosehip richest in oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, the share of oleic acid has 6,4–19,2%, linoleic and linolenic 19,7–45,8 and 23,3–33,9% of the amount of fatty acids. Lipids powders of hips and seeds of rose have higher levels of essential linoleic acid and powder from the pulp with the skins – linolenic acid. In the study established the presence of sterols 7 fractions, the predominant of which is the β-sitosterol. In the powder from the pulp with the skins found the greatest amount of ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and the powder of seeds – vitamin E. Carotenoids in powders are β-carotene and lycopene. The high content of ascorbic acid, vitamin E and carotenoids in powder from wild rose hips makes them a good source of antioxidants. Therefore, we studied the possibility of using vegetable powders obtained from hips of wild rose, to enrich biologically active substances such as vitamins C, E and carotenoids, food supply, particularly of health care use. Rosehip powder from the pulp with the skins had the highest antioxidant activity, antioxidant activity of hips powders was 74% of the activity of powder from the pulp with the skins, the lowest antioxidant activity was observed in the powder from the wild rose seeds. That’s way, based on the analysis of the chemical composition of rose hip powder found high levels they ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids, found their high antioxidant activity. It allows to recommend powders produced from the hips, as a source of physiologically functional ingredients for the production of fortified food products, especially medical and prophylactic purposes. The use of such additives will fill the gap in the body of P-active substances, vitamins C and E, β-carotene, pectin substances.