Hygiene of nutrition
New aspects of antibiotics contamination of food in the light of harmonization of hygienic standards for tetracycline with the international standards
To address the issue of harmonization of Russian MRLs for tetracycline in food and on the basis of the tasks of preserving the value of hygienic standard for the more restrictive level than similar standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission in this survey we analyzed the evidences of the negative effects of subingibitory amounts of these antibiotics (lying below the MIC for clinically relevant microorganisms). The inadequacy of the microbiological JECFA ADI and the necessity of using of methodology of analyzing the effects of biological active substances in small doses for assessing the risk of food contamination of tetracycline subingibitory concentrations were demonstrated. Current scientific information on the functions of antibiotics as signaling molecules in the microbial world and the role of tetracycline as a leading factor in the regulation of transcription in microorganisms and activation of the horizontal transfer of resistance genes transferred to the family of conjugative transposons Tn916–Tn1545 also was reviewed in paper. Evidencebased data regarding the basic contribution of subingibitory concentrations of tetracycline in the spread of worst transmissible type of antibiotic resistance and the formation of new pathogens, associated with it, are represented. To reduce the risk of direct adverse effects on microbial ecosystem in the human body and its habitat, and to minimize the indirect risk of new infections, the necessity of saving the current Russian level residues of tetracycline (≤0,01 mg/kg of product), which is low by contrast to the Codex MRLs (≤0,1–1,2 mg/kg), was proved. Tetracycline concentrations in food, regulated in Russian Federation, below 0,1 MIC for clinically significant microorganisms which aren’t capable to initiation of the above described negative changes.
Hygienic and toxicological safety estimation of nano- and microispersed manganese oxide (III, IV)
The findings of the experimental study performed within the preliminary hygienic and toxicological assessment of nanodispersed manganese oxide (III, IV), which was endogastrics administered to white nonlinear mice once, showed that, under acute oral exposure to manganese oxide, nanodispersed particles were 2,6-fold more toxic and cumulative (class 3, according to the oral LD50 values) than dispersed solution with micro-sized particles (0,4–592 μm, class 4). Endogactric exposure to nanodispersed solution of manganese oxide (III, IV) in organisme produced such negative health effects as vasodilation and plethora, pathological inclusions and increased cell aggregation, which increased and became more prevalent with higher doses. The prediction of chronic toxicity parameters demonstrated that threshold and NOAEL doses for nanodispersed solution were 1,6 and 0,26 mg/kg, respectively, which are 2,3 times lower than for finely divided solution of manganese oxide (III, IV).
Characterization of fullerene С60 peroral toxicity to rats in the 92-day experiment
Toxicity of fullerene C60 in male Wistar rats under conditions of a daily intragastric administration at doses of 0,1; 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight for 92 days was studied. Integral, biochemical, physiological, hematological, immunological indicators were determined that characterized the body condition of animals together with fullerene C60 biodistribution in organs and tissues of rats. Majority of the results didn’t show any influence of fullerene C60 on animals treated with it in the whole range of doses studied. On the other hand, some of the data not related to the action of the components used in carrier solution, demonstrated dose-dependent variation: found increased activity on 21–35% in the CYP2B1 at doses of 1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg body weight, and reduced concentration of uric acid and increasing concentrations of urea at 10 mg/kg body weight. Nevertheless, these changes were within the physiologicalrange of variability. However, it is worth noting an important significant (p=0,02) increase of the absorption for antigenic proteins in the digestive tract in animals treated with fullerene C60 at a dose of 10 mg/kg, suggesting a marked effect on the intestinal wall.
The study of FTO rs9939609-gene polymorphism in the Sverdlovsk Region
Recently independent studies, including genome-wide scans, have shown that the rs9939609 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the first intron of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene were significantly associated with obesity in populations of European origin, in certain Asian (e.g., Japanese and Chinese) and African American populations. In this study we examined the association between rs9939609 FTO variant and obesity related parameters in 394 individuals (262 males and 132 females; ages 20–70 years) from the Sverdlovsk area, Russia. A SNP variant rs9939609 was genotyped with the useof an allelic discrimination assay. The TaqMan-based real-time PCR method was applied. The prevalence of ТТ, ТА and АА genotypes of rs9939609 FTO gene of this study was 34%, 47,5%, 18,5%, respectively, the minor A-allele frequency was 42,3%. In comparison to males, females had significantly higher the frequency of minor A-allele and AA genotype. The AA genotype was significantly more frequent in obese individuals (defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) than in non-obese (27,7 and 13,0%, respectively). Compared to the carriers of TT genotype, the likelihood of obesity was 3,0 for the carriers of AA genotype and 1,73 for the carriers of AA+AT genotype. These results confirm that genetic variation (rs9939609) FTO gene contributes to the etiology of obesity in the Sverdlovsk area.
Assessment of new food additives effectiveness in patients with overweight and obesity
With the help of clinical, anthropometric and anthropometric method examination the study estimation of the effectiveness of a new food additives «Vita-Plantherbal tea N16» – with overweight and obesity. Components of a new herbal tea rich in biologically active compounds, flavonoids, phenolic acids, vitamin C and B, carotenoids, trace elements iodine, zinc, molybdenum, manganese, iron, etc. The studies were conducted on 53 patients with overweight and obesity, which were divided into two similar groups of patients were on standard low-calorie diet. The main group (28 patients) received a glass of analyzed herbal tea two times a day for 4 weeks. The control group (25 patients) were in similar conditions, but did not receive this herbal tea. Comprehensive clinical and laboratory evaluation of patients included a study of the dynamics of clinical symptoms, anthropometric data and blood biochemical parameters. Studies have shown a beneficial effect of herbal tea components on metabolism, anthropometric parameters and clinical symptoms in patients with overweight and obesity. This gives us grounds to recommend a new kind of herbal tea in the dietary of patients with this pathology.
Acute intestinal infections morbidity of the Northern administrative district of Moscow population
Acute intestinal infections morbidity of the Northern Administrative District of Moscow population was analyzed as a part of the socio-hygienic monitoring. Long-term dynamics and growth, both among total and child population (respectively on 29,5 and 72,38%) were shown. Also presents the results of laboratory tests of food and food raw materials by microbiological parameters. The percentage of unsatisfactory results on microbiological indicators in 2010 year was 5,0% (in 2009 – 5,5%, in 2008 – 7,5%). It is known, that at patients with intestinal infections not only the socio-hygienic conditions have a significant impact on the epidemic process, but also subjective factors, i.e. level of hygiene knowledge and behavior of the population. Often outbreaks of acute intestinal infections are the result of violations of food sanitation regulations among workers engaged in food production or food trade. According to the authors’ opinion the current training system of decreed population groups, especially the nature of which is associated with the production, storage, transportation and food trade and drinking water needs further development and improvement.
Research in vivo on the growing rats of biological value of protein-peptide ingredient of functional drink
The abstract is devoted to research in vivo on the growing rats of biological value of protein hydrolyzate of meat-and-bone residues of poultry, fortified by defatted cow milk. Cow milk casein was chosen as a template. PER was determined by growing method, based on lab animals’ growth rate assessment. True protein digestibility was determined by balance method. The indices were fixed individually for each animal and then the group mean value was calculated. Accessibility of protein hydrolyzate of meat-and-bone residues of poultry fortified by defatted cow milk equals 100%. PER is 1,25 lower in comparison with casein , which can be explained by a lower retention.
Physiology and biochemistry nutrition
Effects of taurine supplementation on apoptosis, lipid peroxidation and proteomic pools of subcellular fractions of rats hepatic cells during ontogenesis
During research specific proteomic pools of subcellular fractions of rats hepatic cells typical for different states of ontogenesis were identified. Taurine supplementation during early ontogenesis leads to a production of a catalase in rats’ microsomes, that may be an evidence of activation of antioxidant defense system. Majority of proteomic markers (С-type lectin, SH2B1, protein phosphatase-1), which was investigated during taurine supplement, are rather identify features of energy homeostasis, than common assessment of apoptosis or expression certain set of proteins. This fact confirms the requirement of using proteomic diagnostic during nutriproteomic studies that allows defining efficiency and probable risks of using biological active substances in nutrition.
Effect of Coenzyme Q10 supplementation on apoptosis, free radical oxidative processes and proteome pool of microsomal and citozolic fractions of rat hepatocytes during modification of ration lipid component
Our aim was to analyze biochemical mechanism in regulation and adaptation to feeding with ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA plus coenzyme Q10-based diet in rats. The rats were supplemented with Co Q10 (100 mg/kg b.wt.) for 12 month. Male rats were fed a control, control + Q10, fish oil + Q10 palm oil + Q10 and flax oil + Q10 diet. The learning and tests were monitored in 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th month after the start of feeding. There was studied the content of lipid peroxidation products in the liver, the level of their potential substrates polyunsaturated fatty acids of ω-3 and ω-6 families and MEC (metabolism effectiveness coefficient) index value. Growth of relative number of hepatocyte in the state of late apoptosis has been detected in rats receiving fish oil, linseed oil and palm oil as compared to the control group at the age of 1 and 3 months. In later period no differences in the invested indices, that can be the result of impact of CoQ10 and adaptation of organism to diet. Proteomic studies of microsomal fraction of hepatocytes in rats have found differences in the manifestation of catalase and cetochrome b5, associated both with age of animals and type of fat in diet. Proteomic analysis of cytosolic fraction revealed the expression of c-type lectin in the later stages of ontogeny. The levels of lipid peroxidation markers obtain to minimum at 3 month in serum and at 6 month in liver. The specific proteomic changes of influence of diet composition were identified during the research.
Subpopulation content of lymphocytes in peripheral blood in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and obesity
In the present study was determined the relative quantity subpopulations of lymphocytes, activated T-lymphocytes and CD95-antigen (Fas/APO-1) expression on lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM 2) and obesity in comparison with the healthy persons. The cells were analyzed by the method of flow cytometry using Beckman Coulter FC 500 cytometer. The following of cells subsets: CD19+, CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+, CD3–CD16+СD56+, CD3+CD16+CD56+, CD3+CD25+, CD3+HLA-DR+, CD45+CD95+ were investigated. In this research was establish the rise of immunoregulatory index (CD3+CD4+/CD3+CD8+) in consequence of decrease the percentages of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in patients with DM2 and obesity in comparison with the healthy persons. In the peripheral blood of patients with DM2 and obesity were observed a greater level of activated T-lymphocytes (CD3+HLA-DR+), that reflect the increase activity of T-cell immunity. The direct correlation was found between the increased quantity of NKT-cells (CD3+CD16+CD56+) and contain of triglicerides in the peripheral blood of patients with DM2. In these patients also was noted a greater level of lymphocytes expression of CD95-antigen in comparison with the patients with obesity and healthy persons. These results suggest that immune mechanisms play the important role in pathogenesesis of DM2 and obesity.
Food fortification: the history and perspectives
The recommended daily intakes of vitamins in different countries have been compared. The data on consumption of vitamins and vitamin status are submitted. It is noted that since 2008 the values of recommended daily intakes of vitamin-antioxidants C and E and folate in Russia as in other countries has been significantly increased. The recommended vitamin D consumption in Russia has been increased 2–3-fold as in most European countries and USA, while vitamin A recommended intake, on the contrary, has been reduced by 10%. Monitoring of vitamin status of various groups of adult population (by vitamin serum blood level evaluation) during the period since 2003 to 2011 has shown that that since 2003 deficiency of B group vitamins takes place in 10–47% of surveyed, vitamin D insufficiency was detected in 20,7% of adults. Thus the deficiency of these micronutrients has been determined much more often than the deficit of vitamins Е and C (2,8–11%). The key causes of vitamin deficiency among the population in current conditions have been discussed. The main ways of increasing of diet vitamin value by means of fortified foods usage or/and vitamin and mineral complexes intake have been considered. The effective and safe levels of food enrichment have been examined. Harmonized with the EU documents and Codex Alimentarius acting sanitary rules and regulations which govern the enrichment of food products of mass consumption with vitamins and minerals have been commented upon. The history of food enrichment (fortification) with vitamins and salt iodization in our country and abroad has been described. Basing on the experience of several countries in which the mandatory enrichment of regularly consumed food products (flour, breakfast cereals) had compensated inadequate intake of vitamin D, group B, iodine and iron to a large extent, the conclusion on the feasibility and health benefits of fortified foods intake has been done.
Influence of combined lacto vegetarian diet and selective beta-blocking agents on clinical and metabolic indexes in patients with coronary heart disease
Clinical, hemodynamic and metabolic parameters were investigated for 42 patients with coronary heart disease, after myocardial infarct, recieved selective β-adrenoblockers. Patients were divided in two groups. The first group (24 patients) were given methoprolol (50 mg/daily) and antiatherogenic lacto vegetarian diet, the second (18 patients) – methoprolol (50 mg/daliy) and standard mixed antiatherogenic diet. After the treatment, positive changes clinical and gemodynamic parameters were observed in both groups of patients. Among the clinical symptoms, a more pronounced decrease in blood pressure in the patients on vegetarian diet and a more significant increase in their exercise tolerance. The level of total cholesterol on the serum of blood decreased by 16%, low-density lipoproteins cholesterol decreased by 18%, the atherogenic coefficient (KA) decreased by 31%, only in vegetarian group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in vegetarian group, by 14% and decreased in control group. Balanced antiatherogenic lacto vegetarian diet in patients with coronary heart disease prevents the hyperlipedemic effect caused by the selective β-adrenoblockers and it is an agent for preventing its negative effect on lipid metabolism.
The clinical and immunological manifestations of food intolerance in obese patients
The clinical and immunological manifestations of food intolerance in obese patients were studied. Food intolerance was diagnosed in 32,6 and 33,4% in obese patients stage 2 and stage 3 respectively, and was basically determined by 13 proteinaceous food products. The changes in immune status in obese patients created conditions for development of food intolerance. The timely diagnose food intolerance allows to personalize the diet therapy.
Body composition in patients with different degree of obesity before and after dietetic correction
The study included 400 patients with I–III obesity degree. All patients were tested before and after hypocaloric diet with energy value of 1600 kcal/day within 2 weeks. The bioimpedance analysis was spent on device «Inbody 720». The application of the hypocaloric diet is accompanied by clinically significant decrease in body weight in patients with obesity mainly due to the fatty component and visceral fat area and positive dynamics of clinical and biochemical parameters.