Hygiene of nutrition
The analysis of international legislation in the field of regulation of functional foods claims
It is known that manufacturers quite often put into foodstuff marking or advertisement the information about its beneficial action into the consumers health, i.e. about its functional qualities. However in Russian Federation the rules are regulated using of term “functional foods” doesn’t established. In the review of legislation acts which are regulated of using claims in the foodstuff marking or advertisement in the different countries have been shown that claims concerning of energy and nutritional values of foods (beneficial nutrition claims) should be used in compliance with established rules without additional investigations. Food health claims referring to the reduction of disease risk and (or) functional foods claims for children must maintain in compliance with established procedure. Only claims that have scientific evidence about its beneficial for health could be recommended for approval. Thereupon insistent necessity in development, discussion and approval regulation in the field of using Claims concerning the functional qualities of foods (described rules of using beneficial nutrition claims and claims referring to the reduction of disease risk and to children’s development and growth) in Russian Federation and United Customs Union (EurAsEU) are obvious.
Comparative analysis of modern approaches to risk estimation from artificially created nanoparticles and nanomaterials
The article represents a review of modern approaches to problem of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials risk estimation for human health and environment that were elaborated in EU, USA and some international authorities. Submitted data suggests that there is a significant coincidence with approaches being developed and introduced in Russian Federation under the guidance of Rospotrebnadzor. Particularly criteria being used in Russian Federation and EU for classification of nanotechnologies and nanoindustry production are mainly similar. They include a) identification of nanomaterials in production, b) establishment of production disintegration possibility with concomitant migration of free nanoparticles, c) possibility of nanoparticles emission/migration both in normal conditions of utilization and in possible emergency conditions, d) degree of proximity of particular kind of production to it’s consumer that means the possibility of exposition being from closely to zero (in conditions of unhabitated exploitation) up to approximately 100% (in case of medicine, food and cosmetics), e) biological examination of potential danger of nanomaterials according to current volume of scientific information. As applied to nanotechnology plants there are such criteria in use as a) nanomaterial identification, b) personnel exhibiting possibility, c) potential toxicity of stuff in aerosol nano-form, d) characteristics of biological action. Thus applied in Russia principles for nanomaterials safety estimation do not contradict to concepts of foreign authorities that builds up a possibility of said approaches harmonization to internationally recognized norms.
Оxidative and hydrolytic deterioration of palm oil and fat products based on it under various conditions of storage and transportation
Studies have been conducted on the effect of storage conditions for refined deodorized palm oil on the quality and safety: in containers made of ferrous metals (mild steel) at unregulated temperature, in sealed plastic bags at the temperature –20 °C in stainless steel under stratification of nitrogen at the temperature of 40±1 °C. The choice of the objects of study determined by the normative documents of the Russian Federation governing the transportation and storage of vegetable oils and fat products based on them. All samples of palm oil with peroxide value of 1,0 to 1,5 meq O2/kg indicated the presence of a weak foreign taste, is not peculiar impersonal fat, the samples with peroxide value above 1,5 meq O2/kg were observed pronounced off-flavors and odors characteristic of stale oil. Rancidity was observed in samples having peroxide value of 2,0 meq O2/kg or more. Free acid value and anizidin value for the studied period changed to a lesser extent, from 0,06 to 0,1 mg KOH/g and from 1,2 to 1,4 respectively. It is proved that, transportation / storage of palm oil at the temperature above 50 °C without stratification of nitrogen greatly accelerates the process of oxidative damage. Based on these data we can recommend transportation / storage and management process with the least possible time of contact of melted palm oil with oxygen to produce high-quality final product (within 2–3 hours from the time of melting).
The morbidity dynamics of alimentary-associated diseases in children and adolescents in Northern administrative district of Moscow over a period of 2006–2010
Through socio-hygienic monitoring of the Northern administrative district of Moscow in 2006–2010 the study of nutritional status and morbidity rates for alimentary-associated diseases of the digestive tract, the endocrine system, сardiovascular diseases and obesity – was conducted in children (5–11 years old), adolescents (12–16 years old) and adult population. Over the last 5 years negative dynamics in morbidity rates for the illnesses related to malnutrition and nutritional status disturbances was shown in children and adolescents. Thus it was noted a considerable increase of alimentary-associated diseases among children (2,3 times more) and adolescents (2,1 times more). This applies especially to gastrointestinal diseases (gastritis, duodenitis, etc.) and obesity which prevalence increased over the last 5 years among children (under 5 years old) 2,4 times more; and 2,1 times more among teenagers. In children and adolescents from the district gastrointestinal diseases amount to 15,6% of all nutrition-related diseases. The authors of the article emphasize that currently hygiene education of the population (including children and adolescents) must become a key tool in implementing the state policy in the area of healthy nutrition and in activities of the primary care health service to prevent nutritional disturbances and decrease the prevalence rate of alimentary-associated diseases with special attention from nutritionists, dietarians, and hygienists.
Nutritional status in patients after gastrectomy due to gastric cancer
Aim of the study was to evaluate nutritional status in patients after gastrectomy due to gastric cancer. Methods: In 55 (26 males and 29 females) gastric cancer patients after gastrectomy body composition (bioimpedansometry method); resting energy expenditures and home actual nutrition (frequency analysis method) were evaluated. Blood levels of major nutrients and metabolites were assessed. Results: Both men and women suffered from weight loss after gastrectomy (mean BMI was 19,8±4,7 kg/m2 in men and 20,5±1,9 in women). Higher BMI was positively correlated with age in women (R=0,45; p<0,03), but not in men, however there was no difference in mean age and mean time after gastrectomy between men and women. Mean body fat mass significantly decreased in men (7,4±5,0 kg) and in women (12,0±7,1 kg) in compare to normal values (18,2 and 22,5 correspondingly) (p<0,001).Resting energy expenditure variably decreased (for 13–53%) in half of the patients, mainly due to decrease in lipid oxidation rate. Mean daily energy intake was lower than normal in short-term (1359 kcal in period of 12 months) and long-term (1814 kcal in 1–5 years period) after gastrectomy, due to decrease consumption of proteins, carbohydrates and fat. Mean blood total protein, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were lower than normal values in 40% of patients. Conclusion: In gastric cancer patients low BMI, low fat mass and energy consumption are observed even long period of time after gastrectomy. Dietary counseling and support are badly needed in patients short-term as well as long-term period after gastrectomy in men and younger women.
Effect of diet enriched with selenium on the psycho-emotional and adaptive capacity of patients with cardiovascular diseases and obesity
It was studied the effect of diet enriched with selenium on the clinical and biochemical status, psycho-emotional and adaptive capacity of the organism in patients with diseases of the cardiovascular system. We examined 59 patients with cardiovascular disease and obesity, treated for 3 weeks antiatherogenic reduced calorie diet. Of these 36 patients from the index group took on the back of ground diet selenium containing diet product (part of alimentotherapy). Patients underwent clinical examination, biochemical parameters and the availability of selenium were measured. To assess the adaptive capacity of the organism we used Program Apparatus Complex. Quality of life of patients, overall health, level of anxiety and the dynamics of mental processes were assessed using SAS procedures, Spielberger–Hanin anxiety test, Serdyuk Quality of Life Questionnaire, Kraepelin’s counting test. The results indicate positive changes in clinical and biochemical status, availability of selenium, adaptive capacity, psycho-emotional state of patients with cardiovascular disease and obesity because of the diet enriched with organic form of selenium. We revealed increase in activity, improvement of overall health and cognitive functions, mood stabilization, reduction of anxiety and emotional lability. The main differences observed between the groups identified in the leveling of the anxiety radical in psycho-emotional status of patients.
Role of alimentary factor in gastroesophageal reflux disease pathogenesis and treatment
The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of mеаl volumе, weight change, excessive weight, and caloric content of the ration on disease’s manifestation and progression from data presented in the published scientific literature. Systematic review in РubМеd/Medline databased was performed with key words: food, dietary patterns, nutrients, nutrition, meal volume, calorie in combination with gastroesophageal reflux and GERD. 113 articles were found and 29 of them were selected according to the following criteria: the article should contain data оf clinical observations, or to be а result of meta-analysis; study group characteristic, study design, and results should have been available for the analysis. The review contains data concerning influence of body mass index, its change; meal volume and caloric content of the ration on clinical manifestations of GERD. The dietotherapy recommendations for this illness include exclusion of overeating, limitation in use of high-caloric foods, increased protein content in diet, the adherence of 3–4 meals daily, with the last meal at 2–3 hours before sleep. However, the majority of the recommendations on the use of dietary nutrition is mainly based on the empiric experience, not on scientific data, and that doesn’t allow to prepare reasonable recommendations for changing the diet of the patients with GERD. There is а need for prospective studies of influence of diet correction on course of the disease.
Biochemistry of nutrition
Modern concepts of gene polymorphisms, which regulate lipid metabolism
This review discusses the present view on lipid metabolism regulation with emphasis on polymorphisms of key genes. Relying on the analysis of the literature, the blood lipid specter of carriers of the key genes allelic variants has been described. Therefore, reasonability of a more profound study of the influence of genetic polymorphisms on lipid metabolism regulation is substantiated. It is revealed, that the carriers of one of the abnormal alleles causes a higher risk for obesity and its associated complications. Polymorphic variants of the genes, that regulated lipid metabolism are widely presented in human population. It explains the big interest to studying of communication between dyslipidemia, adiposity and other pathologies with features of a genotype. However, abnormality of metabolic process and associated diseases in most cases represent multifactorial diseases. For today, the important problem for researchers still is a definition of a role of individual genetic features in development of pathological processes. The special attention in researches of last years is given to the genes, which products concern to leptin-melanokortin system of regulation of a energy metabolism; proteins-carriers lipid’s blood fractions and cholesterol; and also the enzymes splitting lipids. Lipid metabolism is closely connected with an exchange of carbohydrates, especially a glucose metabolism. That is why genes mediating actions of insulin represent the greatest interest. Today, more than 400 genes are the potential candidates, capable to regulate lipid exchange. However, the further careful and extensive researches in this area are necessary.
Digestive enzyme functionality in pathology of the gastrointestinal tract with intestinal microbiocenosis disorders
A change pattern in enzyme release function of digestive glands exerts the organism as a whole. Dysfunctions of hydrolysis and intestinal malabsorption (secondary malabsorption syndrome) are the first step towards nutrition and metabolism processes abnormality and that can play a role in genesis of pathological conditions. Recent researches arouse clinicians interest in determination of biofluid enzyme activity in different physiological and abnormal cases. Intestinal infections are followed by dysbacteriosis and obvious alterations in the hydrolase levels in the blood, urine and motions because of the changes of functional status of the liver, renal and intestinal barriers in relation to increted digestive enzymes. This causes an unfavorable course of recovery with the development of postinfectious digestion disorders as a result of previous acute diarrhea. Future researches are necessary to elaborate appropriate remodeling of developed pathosis with the help of enzymotherapy and probiotic diet.
Peculiarities of vitamin status in men and women with cardiovascular disease and obesity
We explored the characteristics of the vitamin status in 471 patients with cardiovascular diseases, according to sex, and BMI values. All patients underwent examination of the system Nutritest-IP: studying their actual meals at home, determined anthropometric measurement, body composition, using biochemical methods evaluated the state of the protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, the functional state of liver and biliary tract, hemostasis, vitamin provision. The results suggest a lack of availability of patients with vitamins C and B group. The number of patients with deficient serum β-carotene increased proportional to body mass index. The concentration of β-carotene decreased and vitamin E – increased in blood serum proportionally to increase the degree of obesity. Thus the availability of vitamins in the blood serum depends from sex and body mass index values of the patients. These data suggest that the rate of supply of vitamins are reliable markers to assess the adequacy of the diet consumed by the content of vitamins in people with normal body weight. Appraisingly the content of β-carotene and vitamin E in the serum of patients it should be taken into account that they have overweight or obese, and abnormality of lipid spectrum of blood serum.
Vitamins in rat experimental diets
A comparison of full semisynthetic diets used in different laboratories has shown that its vitamin content covers physiological requirements of rats in these micronutrients. The significant fluctuations in group B vitamin concentrations may take place when one uses brewer’s yeast as a source of these vitamins. A preliminary assessment of vitamin content in brewer’s yeasts is required in this case. An essential contribution of basic components in diet vitamin content must be taken in consideration when one creates a vitamin-deficient diet. Casein contains substantial amounts of group B vitamins and vitamin D. Therefore decontamination of casein from water and / or fat-soluble vitamins or the use of commercial purified casein is required. Vegetable oils are usually used as a fatty component of a diet and they simultaneously serve as an additional source of vitamin E. A choice of naturally containing vitamin E oil as a fat component of a diet is crucial for the creating an alimentary deficiency of vitamin E. The content of fat-soluble vitamins in the diet of control group (group of comparison) and vitamin level in the diet of experimental group of animals must be equivalent in investigations with modified (quality and quantitative) fat diet component. Caloric restriction by simple reducing of food without increasing the amount of vitamins to an adequate level is incorrect. With these considerations in mind proper attention to the equivalence of vitamin content in the diet of animals in experimental and control groups should be paid during experiments scheduling. Otherwise, the studies carried out under deficient or excessive intake of vitamins can lead to incorrect interpretation of the results and difficulties in their comparison with the data obtained under different conditions.
Nutrition of sportsmеn
The mineral composition of the carbohydrate-electrolyte drinks, vitamin-mineral complexes and dietary supplements for athletes
In the article analyzes the macro- and trace element composition of sports drinks, vitamin-mineral complexes and biologically active additives (BAA). The estimation of the mineral collection of these products compared with the recommended standards. Established mineral composition many of the carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, vitamin-mineral complexes and biologically active additives corresponds the physiology standards. However in some vitaminmineral complexes and especially biologically active additives a number of minerals can be either unreasonably low or unreasonably high. Furthermore during labeling, mainly in the category D, a number of errors were revealed. Particularly there were lack of instructions about the number of declared ingredients, inaccuracies in the calculations of the daily requirement of mineral elements etc. Providing of an athlete organism with minerals should be carried out not only by carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, vitamin-mineral complexes and specialized BAA, but mainly through basal ration. Utilising of carbohydrateelectrolyte solutions, vitamin-mineral complexes and biologically active additives can be justified only by the recommendations of experts. This is true not only in pro sports, but for the mass sports, as well as for individual physical training, in order to maintain physically fit.