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2020 . 4

Chemical food safety: development of methodological and regulatory base

Abstract

The review presents the results of studies carried out in the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition and Biotechnology in the direction of food toxicology, the purpose of which was to improve the risk assessment methodology, substantiate hygienic regulations for the content of chemical contaminants in foodstuffs and develop methods for their detection and quantitative determination. New challenges and problems associated with the control and regulation of chemical contaminants in foods are associated, firstly, with the identification of previously unrecognized chemical factors harmful to human health, and, secondly, are caused by the progress of technologies, accompanied by the emergence of new sources of nutrients and methods of processing foodstuffs, which, along with many benefits and advantages, creates new potential risks to consumer health. Among the priority chemical pollutants, which should be mentioned currently as objects of improved regulation and control methods, are toxic elements (organic and inorganic forms of arsenic, mercury, nickel), veterinary drugs, phycotoxins, phytotoxins, new mycotoxins, various forms of polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, biologically active substances of plant origin, concentrated during the production of extracts, as well as so-called technological contaminants, food additives, residual amounts of technological aids. An independent problem is the assessment of risks from nanoparticles and nanomaterials used in the production of foodstuffs, as well as enzyme preparations and food ingredients produced with the help of genetically modified microorganisms. The system of toxicological and hygienic assessment and control of chemical contaminants in foodstuffs operating in Russia is constantly being improved on the basis of new scientific data to substantiate the permissible levels of their content in products and new methods of analysis. The results obtained are reflected in the regulatory documents of the Russian Federation and the Eurasian Economic Union.

Keywords:foodstuff, contaminants, toxicity, rationing, control, nanotechnology, genetically modified microorganisms, enzyme preparations, food additives

Funding. The work was carried out at the expense of subsidies for the fulfillment of a state task within the framework of the Program of fundamental scientific research (theme of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia No. 0529-2019-0057).

Conflict of interests. The authors declare no conflict of interests.

For citation: Khotimchenko S.A., Gmoshinski I.V., Bagryantseva O.V., Shatrov G.N. Chemical food safety: development of methodological and regulatory base. Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2020; 89 (4): 110-24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24411/0042-8833-2020-10047 (in Russian)

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CHIEF EDITOR
CHIEF EDITOR
Viktor A. Tutelyan
Full Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Scientific Director of the Federal Research Centre of Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (Moscow, Russia)

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