Estimation of the diet and metabolic status of hokkey players with different body mass
Intense physical activity can lead to endogenous intoxication of the organism of athletes. Metabolic stress occurs due to the acceleration of plastic and energy exchanges and the accumulation of products of incomplete metabolism, lipid peroxidation processes are activated, changes occur in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system of the organism. One of the first and most powerful means of recovery is nutrition.
The aim of the work is to evaluate biochemical blood parameters characterizing the metabolic processes in athletes with different body weight under organized nutrition.
Material and methods. Three groups of hockey players aged 26.4±0.8 years old were examined, playing in the Continental Hockey League, with different body mass (BM): below the 25th quartile - 1st (n=7), above 75th quartile - 3rd (n=9) and in the zone of 2575 quartile - 2nd (n=17). For the assessment of the consumption of nutrients and energy per day, menu layouts have been analyzed. Blood biochemical parameters (total protein, urea, creatinine, glucose, total cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides’, creatine kinase-MB, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), testosterone and cortisol), characterizing the metabolic status of the organism, have been determined through 2.5 and 4 months of games. The anabolism index, atherogenic index and De Ritis Ratio have been calculated.
Results and discussion. The energy value of the diet (6693.5 kcal/day), in general, corresponded to the daily needs of athletes (from 5953.2 to 6494.4 kcal/day). Daily calorie intake in the individuals of group 1st was higher than recommended by 13.5%, 2nd - by 3.1%, 3rd - corresponded to the need per 1 kg of BM. Protein level exceeded the norm for individuals of groups 1-3 by 51.4-27.0%; fats - by 34.0-12.4%. The amount of carbohydrates complied with the norm only for persons of group 1st. Athletes of groups 2nd and 3rd received less carbohydrates, respectively by 6.7 and 13.8%. Testosterone level was within the normal range, while cortisol level was significantly higher than norm. The anabolism index indicated that individuals from groups 1st and 2nd were overtraining at all stages of observation, and group 3rd - after 4 months of games. Urea level in the re-examination significantly increased and exceeded the norm by 30.4, 27.4 and 25.3%, respectively, creatinine level also elevated. After 2.5 months of games, total cholesterol in individuals of groups 2nd and 3rd was higher than in group 1st, but did not go beyond the reference limit; after 4 months it exceeded the norm. High-density lipoproteins were lower or within low norm limit; low-density lipoproteins in group 1st slightly increased, and in group 2nd and 3rd exceeded the norm. Atherogenic index increased, exceeding the age norm in all groups. Creatine kinase-MB went beyond the normal range in hockey players of all groups. AST increased in groups 2nd and 3rd, exceeding the norm. De Ritis Ratio in athletes of all groups in each study was above the norm.
Conclusion. In hockey players, signs of catabolism were more pronounced in group 1st, less than in 3rd (cortisol level). The systemic metabolic shift towards an increase in protein catabolism in the same sequence was indicated by the level of urea and creatinine and De Ritis Ratio. Lipid metabolism disorders were more pronounced in individuals of groups 2nd and 3rd. Biochemical indicators showed the presence of overtraining, hypoxia in the heart muscle cells and the activation of biochemical processes in the direction of gluconeogenesis, which was confirmed by the data on insufficient consumption of diet carbohydrates.
Keywords:ice hockey, diet, body weight, biochemical parameters, metabolic status
For citation: Rakhmanov R.S., Bogomolova E.S., Khayrov R.Sh. Estimation of the diet and metabolic status of hokkey players with different body mass. Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2019; 88 (4): 57-65. doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2019-10042 (in Russian)