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Impact of L-carnitine and phosphatidylcholine containing products on the proatherogenic metabolite TMAO production and gut microbiome changes in patients with coronary artery disease

Abstract

The aim of the study was to assess the impact of L-carnitine and phosphatidylcholine containing products on the production of the proatherogenic metabolite TMAO and gut microbiome changes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).

Material and methods. The study consisted of 2 parts. In the first part, a comparison was made between the diet of patients with CAD (n=29) and healthy volunteers (n=30) over the age of 50 with respect to the frequency of intake of L-carnitine and phosphatidylcholine containing products. All participants underwent blood sampling and stool tests to assess the concentration of TMAO and the composition of fecal microflora. The second part of the study was dedicated to assessing the correlation between TMAO blood concentration in patients with CAD (n=89) and the frequency of intake of L-carnitine and phosphatidylcholine containing products.

Results and discussion. Patients with CAD comparing to healthy people among the predecessor products of TMAO consumed red meat, dairy products more often, eggs and fish less often. TMAO concentration in patients with CAD was higher than in healthy volunteers (1036.4±748.2 vs 376.5±147.9 ng/ml, p=0.0001). Analysis of fecal microflora in patients with CAD revealed an increase number of bacteria from Verrucomicrobiaceae family (p<0.05) and Enterobacteriaceae family (p<0.05), of the Escherichia/Shigella genera (p<0.05), there was a trend to increased number of Ruminococcus (р=0.065), Clostridium XlV (b) genera (р=0.10). Correlation between TMAO concentration and frequency of red meat, eggs, and dairy products consumption was estimated in patients with CAD (r>0.525, р<0.05).

Conclusion. Patients with CAD consume more precursors of TMAO, have higher blood TMAO concentrations compared to healthy volunteers. Fecal microflora of patients with CAD contains a greater number of gut bacteria related to trimethylamine producers compared to healthy volunteers. Reducing the number of L-carnitine and phosphatidylcholine containing products in the diet of patients with CAD may affect the decrease in the proatherogenic metabolite TMAO concentration.

Keywords:cardiovascular disease, diet, coronary artery disease, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), intestinal microbiome

For citation: Ivashkin V.T., Kashukh Ye.A. Impact of L-carnitine and phosphatidylcholine containing products on the proatherogenic metabolite TMAO production and gut microbiome changes in patients with coronary artery disease. Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2019; 88 (4): 25-33. doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2019-10038 (in Russian)

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