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The new aspects of clinical nutrition at Wilson disease: actuality and perspectives

Abstract

Wilson disease is hereditary disorder of copper metabolism, based on defect of cooper excretion, which leads to accumulation of cooper in the liver and brain. This disease is one of the most difficult to diagnose. Without treatment disease brings to early disability and lethal outcome. In the article, domestic and foreign approaches to dietary management of Wilson disease have been compared. Diet is not recommended as sole therapy. The degree of restriction of the products containing copper now is discussed. According to the Russian clinical guidelines of diagnosis and treatment of Wilson disease exception of products, copper content in which exceeds 0.5 mg/100 g (liver, shellfish, nuts, cocoa products, mushrooms, bean and some grains) is recommended, while in EASL clinical guidelines there are no any information about restriction of the products containing copper. It is necessary to pay attention not only to cooper restriction, but also to qualitative components of diet. Protein is important part of nutrition under liver disease. According to ESPEN guidelines, the recommended protein intake at chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis is 1.2-1.5 g/kg/day. Dairy products and whey protein are good sources of protein, they almost do not contain cooper, therefore they can be used without restrictions at Wilson disease (in case of normal lactose and milk protein tolerance). The reduce of consumption of sugar, refined carbohydrates and trans fats is also recommended. Dietary recommendations must take into consideration the nutrition status of the patient (protein energy malnutrition, normal body weight, obesity) and degree of liver damage (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis). It is necessary to develop individualization of diet, increasing efficiency of medicinal treatment of Wilson disease.

Keywords:Wilson disease, cooper, protein energy malnutrition

For citation: Baranovsky A.Yu., Belodedova AS., Fedorova T.F., Palgova L.K., Grigoreva E.Yu. The new aspects of clinical nutrition at Wilson disease: actuality and perspectives. Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2019; 88 (4): 12-7. doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2019-10036 (in Russian)


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