New functional food ingredient – lipid module, source of astaxantine and plasmalogenes
The aim of this work was to study the impact of modification of fatty acids composition of laboratory animals’ diet in the presence of plasmalogenes (PG), astaxanthin (ASTA) and their combination on animals’ adaptation potential in stress conditions.
Material and methods. The fatty acids composition of diet was altered with the use of lipid module, containing 88.7% of high oleic sunflower oil, 6.3% of coconut oil and 5% of micralagae Schizochytrium sp. oil. The experiment was conducted with the use of 80 male Wistar rats with initial body weight 125±5 g. Selected animals (n=50) were divided into 5groups according to their activity in tests «Open field» (OF) and «Elevated plus-maze» (EPM). The animals of control group 1st were not exposed to physiological tests - this was an intact control group. The animals of control groups 1st and 2nd were treated with standard half-synthetic diets for 30 days [381 kcal/100 g of dry food, 20.1% of casein on calories, 10% of fat (the mixture of lard and sunflower oil in 1:1 ratio)]. In the diet of 3d group animals the sunflower oil (50% of fat in the diet) was substituted with lipid module, enriched with ASTA (4.0±0.3 mg/day/kg b.w.); in the diet of group 4 animals - with lipid module, enriched with PG (79.0±2.0 mg/day/kg b.w.); in the diet of group 5 animals - with lipid module, enriched with ASTA and PG (the same doses). The evaluation of anxiety level and total exploration activity was conducted in «elevated plus maze» test. On the 31st day of experiment, animals were exposed to forced swim test for evaluation of their physical endurance and capacity in the conditions of high stress. Results and discussion. The introduction into the animal diet of lipid module, enriched with PG and/or ASTA had pronounced hypolipidemic effect, lowered total serum cholesterol against a background of decrease in low-density lypoproteins (LDL) level. The concentration of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) - docosahexaenoic acid in liver cells of animals treated with lipid module enriched with PG and/or ASTA increased more the 3 times, while ω-6 linoleic acid decreased twice. The consumption of enriched with ASTA lipid module inhibited the increase in blood corticosterone level after stress (exhausting physical exercise) and lowered it to the control animals values, thus showing adaptogenic effect. The animals treated with lipid module enriched with ASTA (group 3) spent significantly less time in open arms of the maze in comparison with the first test, what may show the increase in anxiety level. The introduction of PG into lipid module neutralized this effect. The forced swim test with load showed no increase in working ability and endurance of animals of all tested groups.
Conclusion. The further study of adaptogenic action of PG in combination with ASTA in the composition of lipid module compared to the similar effect of traditional phospholipids is of special interest.
Keywords:lipid module, astaxanthin, plasmalogen, adaptation potential, stress, lipid profile
For citation: Sidorova Yu.S., Petrov N.A., Zorin S.N., Sarkisyan V.A., Mazo V.K., Kochetkova A.A. New functional food ingredient - lipid module, source of astaxantine and plasmalogenes. Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2019; 88 (1): 49-56. doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2019-10005. (in Russian)