Dairy products and obesity: pro and contra, Russian experience
The aim of the work was to study the association of overweight and obesity with the consumption of basic types of dairy products among the adult population of Russia. Data from the survey of the diet of adult members of 45,000 households, conducted in 2013 by the Federal Service of State Statistics in all regions of the country, have been used. The actual consumption of food among all members of the surveyed households was studied by 24-hour (daily) diet recall in April and September 2013. The body mass index was calculated on the basis of self-esteem by respondents of body weight and height. It was shown that average daily intake of kefir, yogurt and cottage cheese was higher in women, while consumption of drinking milk and cheeses was higher for men. Consumption of drinking milk and kefir in men and women was much higher in groups with overweight and obesity than with normal body weight. Consumption of yogurt, on the contrary, was much less in people of both sexes with overweight and obesity. Consumption of milk, kefir and cottage cheese increased with age, while consumption of yogurt and cheeses, on the contrary, decreased with age. The data of the variation statistics indicated the existence of a relationship between obesity and consumption of individual dairy products. However, the dependence of these same parameters on age reduced the reliability and evidentiary strength of the results of the variation analysis, since the prevalence of obesity increases significantly with age. To study the association of dairy consumption and the spread of obesity, a logistic regression model was used with the calculation of the odd ratio of the risk of obesity in the consumption of dairy products with adjustment for age, education level and per capita family income. The results of the association analysis, with adjustment for socio-demographic variables, unambiguously showed a significant reduction in the risk of obesity in persons of both sexes consuming yoghurt (OR mean 0.76; CI 0.71; 0.82; р<0.001), cottage cheese (OR mean 0.88; CI 0.85; 0.91; р<0.001), as well as in women with consumption of drinking milk (OR mean 0.87; CI 0.84; 0.91; р<0.001). The increase in the risk of obesity was observed only in men with consuming kefir (OR mean 1.08; CI 1.01; 1.16; р=0.023) or hard cheeses (OR mean 1.14; CI 1.08; 1.20; р<0.001) with adjustment for socio-demographic variables.
Keywords:dairy products, dietary intake, adult population, body mass index, risk of overweight and obesity
Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2018; 87 (4): 39-47. doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2018-10040.