Effect of B-vitamin deficiency on biochemical, immunologic markers and trace element status of rats and mice of various lines
Biochemical, vitamin, trace element and immunological changes were searched for the combined nutritional deficiency of vitamins B1, B2, B6 on in vivo models in rats and mice. Female rats of Wistar (W) strain and hybrids of the 1st generation of Dark Aguti and Wistar (DA x W) strains, female mice of BALB/c strain and DBCB tetrahybrids were used in experiment. Animals received for 35 days a balanced diet (control) according to AIN-93 or a similar diet with the exception of vitamins B1, B2, B6 (experimental groups). The content of vitamins B1, B2 in liver, riboflavin blood plasma level and urinary excretion of thiamine, riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid were determined, as well as in rats: blood and liver content of α-tocopherol and retinol, blood biochemical indices of lipid and nitrogen metabolism, activity of cytochrome P isoforms-450 (CYP) in liver; in mice: the circulating levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines of blood plasma, in animals of both species - the content of essential and toxic elements in the kidneys. DAxW rats compared to W and DBCB mice compared to BALB/c were more sensitive to the development of B-vitamin deficiency judging by the B-vitamin status indicators. In the rats of the experimental groups, there were signs of a deterioration in blood and liver levels of vitamin E, multidirectional shifts in vitamin A sufficiency, increased activity of the CYP3A isoform (6β-TG), a decrease in triglycerides, total protein and albumin fraction levels with an increase in urea level. Manifestation degree of these effects depended on the choice of the animal's line. In mice, the B-vitamin deficiency was characterized by an increase in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-10, IL-Ιβ, IL-6 and a decrease in IFN-γ and IL-17A. The content of magnesium, copper, zinc, chromium and silver was lowered, of cesium - was increased in the kidneys of the rats of the experimental groups. In mice, B-vitamin deficiency resulted in diminishment of magnesium, copper, zinc, chromium, selenium, cadmium and lead content, excess accumulation of cobalt and cesium. Some of these biomarkers are supposed to be used in pre-clinical evaluation of the effectiveness of new vitamin complexes, specialized foods and dietary supplements, as well as studies of interactions of various vitamins.
Keywords:vitamins B1, B2, B6, deficiency, rats, mice, biomarkers, cytokines, micro¬elements
Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2018; 87 (4): 14-24. doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2018-10037.