Experimental evaluation of hypolipidemic properties of soy and rice proteins and their enzyme hydrolysates. A brief review
AbstractMetabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized with high prevalence, constant increase of people suffering from this disease and high rate of cardiovascular complications. The key factors, leading to the development of metabolism disorders during MS, are visceral fat mass growth and decrease in sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin, which are associated with disorders of carbohydrate, lipid, purine metabolism and arterial hypertension. The main results of in vivo studies of hypolipidemic properties of soy protein, rice bran protein and their enzymatic hydrolysates using laboratory rats and mice with experimentally induced or genetically associated dyslipidemia are presented in this review. The analysis of reviewed publications shows that consumption of soy protein provides body weight loss, normalizes lipid metabolism, reduces insulin resistance. The consumption of rice protein by laboratory animals, as well as soy protein, leads to decrease of serum cholesterol level and also provides steroid excretion, such as cholesterol and bile acids, with feces. Enzymatic hydrolysis of food proteins allows obtaining peptide mixtures with high biological value and improved functional properties, especially water solubility and intestinal absorption. In their turn, hypolipidemic peptides of hydrolysates can play a key role in endogenous cholesterol homeostasis by means of disturbing its micellar solubility, intestinal absorption, changing bile acids entherohepatic circulation, and also lowering the expression of some genes of proteins - mediators of lipid transport. It has been concluded, that hypolipidemic properties of obtained enzymatic hydrolysates of food proteins determine the prospects of their use in specialized food products for prevention of metabolic disorders.
Keywords:plant proteins, enzymatic hydrolysates, obesity, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance
Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2018; 87 (2): 77-84. doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2018-10021.