Sex and line differences in biochemical indices and fat soluble vitamins sufficiency in rats on in vivo model of metabolic syndrome
AbstractConsumption of diets that are inadequate in energy value to the actual energy expenditure can lead to the development of metabolic syndrome (MS), which has consequences such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic steatohepatosis, atherosclerosis, gout, allergic diseases. Experimental models of MS are needed to develop new approaches to its dietary and drug correction. The aim of the work was a comparative analysis of functional, biochemical and vitamin markers characterizing the effect of a diet with a high content of fructose (F) on males and females of various rat lines and the selection on this basis of an optimal in vivo MS model. Male and female rats of the outbred Wistar line (W) and the inbred Dark Agouti line (DA) were used in the work number of 16 individuals of each sex and line. The animals of the 1st (control) groups of each sex and line received a balanced semi-synthetic diet according to AIN93, and the animals of the 2nd (experimental) groups - the same diet and 30% solution of F instead of water in the regime of free access. Within 121 days, energy value of diets consumed, the increase in body weight and blood pressure were determined; relative mass of internal organs, biochemical parameters of blood plasma, content of fat-soluble vitamins A and E in blood plasma and liver were determined at withdrawal of animals from experiment. It was shown that, in spite of the increased energy value of the diet in the experimental groups throughout experiment, DA males and females practically did not respond to this by an increase in body weight gain, in contrast to W rats (in particular, females). Consumption of diets with F led to an increase in glucose level irrespective of gender and line, whereas triglyceride level (TG) significantly increased only in the case of W female. Addition of F caused in DA rats of both sexes an increase in the mass of the kidneys, as well as more pronounced, in comparison with W rats manifestation of markers of toxic effects on the liver (increases alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase activity, elevated urea and bilirubin level in blood plasma). In rats of both lines intake of F suppressed the accumulation of retinol palmitate in the liver in terms of its specific content. The total content of α-tocopherol in liver was significantly higher in W compared with DA. At the same time, α-tocopherol levels in blood plasma correlated with TG, and the α-tocopherol/TG ratio significantly decreased in female W receiving F, which were characterized by hyperlipidemia. Thus, the effect of F on W males and, in particular, females, basically corresponded to the classical picture of MS with body weight increasing, elevated blood pressure, glycemia and TG increase, whereas the toxic effect of F prevailed in DA liver and, possibly, kidneys without development of marked dyslipidemia and obesity.
Keywords:metabolic syndrome, rats, in vivo models, fructose, vitamin, vitamin sufficiency
Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2018; 87 (1): 51-62. doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2018-10006.