Comparative evaluation of vitamin status and biochemical markers of metabolic syndrome on the models of rodents receiving rations with high quotas of different sugars
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is one of the leading causes of non-infectious pathology among the population of developed countries. It is necessary to have experimental in vivo models of MS for pre-clinical testing of new approaches to its dietary therapy. The purpose of the study was a comparative analysis of functional, biochemical and vitamin markers that characterize the effect of diets with different composition of simple carbohydrates (sugars) on female Wistar rats and female C57Black/6J mice. Animals of each species (n=80) were divided into 5 groups of equal numbers. The animals of the 1st (control) group received a balanced semi-synthetic diet, and the animals of groups from the 2nd to the 5th -the same diet and 30% solutions of sugars - glucose (Gl), fructose (Fr), equimolar mixture Gl and Fr and sucrose instead of water, in the regime of free access for up to 133 days. Measured values included blood pressure, mass of internals, biochemical parameters of blood plasma, the activity of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP3A and glutathione transferase (GT) in liver, glutathione peroxidase (GP) in erythrocytes, the content of vitamins A and E in blood plasma and in liver, the level of vitamins B1 and B2 and nicotinamide coenzymes in liver. Interspecific differences in the response to sugars manifested in a decrease in the solid diet consumption in mice (in contrast to rats), so that the total consumed energy value in experimental groups of mice did not differ systematically from control, and the weight gain was reduced. Liver was the most sensitive organ to addition of sugars in both rats and mice with mass significantly increasing by the 2nd and the 4th months of the experiment. Hyperglycemia and triglyceridemia were the most noticeable in rats receiving Fr. The concentration of phosphorus increased significantly in blood plasma of all rats groups that received sugars. In rats there was a decrease in the activity of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in groups 3 and 5, the activity of CYP2B1 in groups 2 and 5, the increase in HT activity in groups 2, 4 and 5, and GP in group 3 at 56th day of experiment. There was a significant decrease in this index in group 3 at the 56th and the 133rd days of the experiment, and in groups 4 and 5 - at the 56th day. Plasma tocopherol to triglycerides ratio decreased in rats of group 3 at the 56th and 133rd days, groups 4 и 5 - at 56th day, which indicated the decrease of vitamin E safety. Sugars consumption suppressed retinol palmitate accumulation in the liver of rats and mice, and alpha-tocopherol in mice. It was concluded that Fr had the greatest effect on the studied indicators of the organism, and the rats showed the most significant similarity with the clinical picture of MS.
Keywords:metabolic syndrome, rats, in vivo models, sugars, biomarkers, vitamins, vitamin status
Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2017; 86 (6): 42-55. doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2017-00005.