Vitamin status of rural residents, living in Russian Arctic
The aim of this cross-sectional observational study was to estimate vitamin D, B2, A, E, β-carotene (BC) status in rural residents, living in Russian Arctic (Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Area). 216 healthy adults (166 women, 50 men, 45.4+0.8 years old; BMI 27.5±0.5 kg/m2), 76% aboriginal ethnicity and 24% non-aboriginals subjects have been surveyed in spring 2016. Nenets were 72% among the surveyed, Russians - 14%, other ethnic groups - 14%. A total of 69 and 78% of subjects had 25(OH)D and BC blood serum concentrations less than the recommended target threshold of 30 ng/ml and 20 Mg/dL respectively. Deficiency of vitamins B2, A and E, when blood serum concentrations of riboflavin <5 ng/ml, retinol <30 Mg/dL and tocopherols <0.8 mg/dL, were found in 34, 15 and 13% of participants, respectively. The indigenous population was better supplied with vitamins D and B2. The lack of these vitamins was detected 1.3 and 1.8 fold less often (p<0.05) than in the non-aboriginals; whereas non-aboriginals were better provided with vitamin A and BC: the deficiency of these micronutrients was detected 3.1 and 1.8 fold less often (p<0.05) than in the inhabitants. In general, only 2.4% of those surveyed were sufficiently supplied with all 4 studied vitamins and BC. The frequency of deficit of one or two vitamins was revealed in 62.2%, combined deficiency of 3 or more vitamins was detected in 35.4%. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of combined multivitamin deficiencies among the indigenous and non-aboriginals. High incidence of vitamin A deficiency in the indigenous female population (21%) along with insufficiency of vitamin B2 in female non-aboriginals (48%), the lack of vitamin E in men (22%) and vitamin D and BC in 70-78% of the surveyed dictate the need for targeted enrichment of the diet of people living in extreme conditions of the Russian Arctic with multivitamin complexes.
Keywords:vitamins, blood serum, deficiency of vitamins, Russian Arctic, indigenous, non-aboriginals
Voprosy pitaniia [Problems of Nutrition]. 2017; 86 (3): 83-91. doi: 10.24411/0042-8833-2017-00049.