Influence of nanosized amorphous silica on assimilation of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in rats
Amorphous silica (SiO2) in the form of nanoparticles (NPs) is widely used as a food additive E551 in many enriched foods and food supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of SiO2 NPs on assimilation and metabolism of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 in laboratory rats. Amorphous SiO2 «Orisil-300 ®» was used with the size of the primary NPs 20-60 nm according to the electronic, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The experiment was conducted on 8 groups of growing male Wistar rats (with initial body weight 70-80g) number, respectively, 7, 7, 10, 10, 12, 12, 14 and 16 animals. Animals of the 1st, 3rd, 4th and 5th groups received throughout the experiment balanced semi-synthetic diet. Animals of the 2nd group received a diet depleted of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 until day 21; animals of the 6th, 7th and 8th groups -the same diet from the 1st to the 21th day, and then, before the closure of the experiment, the diet provided with the indicated B vitamins at 100% of normal level. From day 22 of experiment and until the end at day 29 the animals of the 3rd and 6th groups received deionized water (placebo) through intragastric gavage; rat of the 4th and 7th groups -aqueous suspension of SiO2 dose of 1 mg/kg body weight /day, and the 5th and 8th group -100 mg/kg/day. Urinary excretion of thiamine, riboflavin, 4-pyridoxilic acid and liver and brain content of vitamins B1 and B2 (after acid and enzyme hydrolysis) were determined by fluorimetric methods. It was found that rats in group 2 lagged in weight gain at day 21 significantly compared to group 1, and developed a marked deficiency of vitamins B1, B2 and B6 according to studied safety parameters. In groups from 6 to 8 at day 29 partial recovery was achieved in vitamin status. Administration of SiO2 to animal of groups 4 and 5, with normal consumption of B vitamins, had no significant effect on any parameters of vitamin status in comparison to group 3. However, intragastric administration of SiO2 led in animals of groups 7 and 8 to an increase in the urinary excretion of vitamins B1 and B2 and lowering of their content in liver as compared to group 6. Administration of SiO2 had no effect on indices of vitamin B6 sufficiency. Possible reasons are discussed for the adverse lowering impact of SiO2 NPs on the availability of vitamins B1 and B2 and their increased clearance from the body.
Keywords:silica, nanoparticles, food additives, vitamin В1, vitamin В2, vitamin В6, safety, risk