The vitamin status of pregnant women in Moscow: effect of multivitamin-mineral supplements
Examination of the vitamin status of 102 pregnant women (19-41 years old) from Moscow (gestational age 6-38 weeks) in winter and spring 2015 has been conducted. The lack of vitamin B2 (blood serum level of riboflavin <5 ng/ml), D (25(OH)D level <30 ng/ml) and β-carotene (<20 mg/dL) occurred in 49-66% of pregnant women. The percentage of persons with reduced serum levels of vitamin B6 (<4.8 mg/l), folic acid (<3 mg/l), vitamin A (<30 mg/dL), and E (<0.8 mg/dl) was insignificant and amounted 6-8%. All of the women had an adequate supply with vitamins C (>0.4 mg/dL) and B12 (>150 ng/L). The frequency of the combined deficiency of two vitamins was 29%, of three vitamins - 21%, four - 10%, five - 5%. Only 8% of women were sufficiently supplied with all 8 studied vitamins and β-carotene. A positive correlation (p<0.001) between the concentration of vitamin E and gestation term occurred. β-Carotene blood serum level raised with increasing gestation term in women receiving multivitamin-mineral supplements (VMS) and directly correlated (p<0.05) with vitamin E serum level. In 63 women who were not taking VMS, blood serum level of vitamins A, D, C, B2, B6, B12, folic acid and β-carotene was lower, and the frequency of inadequate supply, on the contrary, was significantly higher, compared to 39 women receiving VMS. Blood serum concentration of vitamins C, A, D, B6 and folic acid in women who were not taking VMS was significantly reduced (p<0.05) with increasing gestation term, whereas in women consuming VMS vitamin blood serum level was maintained at a constant level. The data obtained demonstrate advisability of VMS intake during pregnancy to maintain vitamin status of pregnant women at a satisfactory level and to reduce the risk of birth defects in infants.
Keywords:vitamin, vitamin deficiency, pregnancy, multivitamin-mineral supplements