Transisomers of fatty acids: health risks and ways to reduce consumption

AbstractThe review presents the analysis of data to assess the health effects of various trans fatty acids. The analysis of the scientific literature indicates that a biological effect is dependent on the type of trans fatty acid. Based on the presented analysis it is shown that the introduction of hygienic rationing content of trans fatty acids (TFAs) should be differentiated according to which of TFAs should be considered to be hazardous to humans. The review presents data justifying the exclusion of some TFAs (rumenic and vaccenic acid) from the total combined content of trans fatty acids while limiting their consumption. These acids are proven to be attributed to functional food factors preventing the risk of various diseases. Rumenic acid and 10-trans-12-cis-octadecadienoic acid may also be used in drug therapy. Due to the positive biological activity of the two isomers of octadecadienoic acid with conjugated bonds, TFAs with conjugated bonds were excluded from the definition of TFAs adopted the Codex Alimentarius Commission and used in official documents of a number of countries. Overview material presented in the article confirms the thesis that the ban on the content of TFAs, or limitation on the legislative level, is a more effective method compared to mandatory labeling. Conducting a valuation of TFAs contents of certain substances is justified from the point of view of analytical chemistry, since the practice of monitoring implemented a method to determine the individual ENG 28 one, two and three double bonds. The article also discussed the various methods for reducing the content of TFAs in food products.

Keywords:trans fatty acids, biological role, the health risks, the reduction of consumption of trans fatty acids, regulation of trans fatty acids