Effect of minor bioactive food substances – rutin and hesperidin in their separate and combined alimentary arrives on the immune system of rats and the activity of nuclear factor NF-kB liver cells
The effect of rutin and hesperidin in their separate and combined admission to the immune system and the activity of nuclear factor NF-kB of rat liver cells has been investigated. Wistar male rats with an initial body weight of 224–225 g were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats in each. The rats of the 1st group (control) received a complete semi-synthetic diet, rats in group 2 – the same diet supplemented with rutine (400 mg/kg b.w.); the rats of group 3 – with the addition of hesperidin (400 mg/kg bw); group 4 – with the addition of rutin and hesperidin (400 mg/kg b.w. each) for 14 days. Animals received feed in free access mode in an amount of 25–30 g per rat per day, that corresponded to 15 g of dry formula. Animals received water also in free access. It has been found that rutin and hesperidin, included in the diet of rats both alone (groups 2 and 3) and together (group 4), have immunomodulatory impact which is a reduce of lymphocyte relative content [1st gr. – 70.55±1.58%, 2nd gr. – 63.62±2.85%, 3rd gr. – 62.03±3.16% (p1–3<0.05), 4th gr. – 65.75±1.08% (p1–4<0.05)] and an increase of percentage of neutrophil leukocytes [1st gr – 19.98±0.97%, 2nd gr. – 25.35±3.14%, 3rd gr. – 28.27±3.30% (p1–3<0.05), 4th gr. – 24.15±1.52% (p1–4<0.05)] and NK-cells in the peripheral blood [1st gr. – 3.29±0.45%, 2nd gr. – 6.91±0.70% (p1–2<0.05), 3rd gr. – 5.88±0.79% (p1–3<0.05), 4th gr. – 4.64±0.32% (p1–4<0.05)], that can be considered as a shift in the direction of innate immunity factors.
In addition, the combined effect of high doses of rutin and hesperidin led to a change in erythrocyte parameters: an increase in the average volume of red blood cells [1st gr. – 56.00±1.06 fl, 2nd gr. – 56.67±0.42 fl, 3rd gr. – 58.50± 0.99 fl, 4th gr. – 59.50±0.99 fl (p1–4<0.05)], and the average content of hemoglobin [1st gr. – 18.97±0.45 pg, 2nd gr. – 19.10±0.19 pg, 3rd gr. – 19.73± 0.32 pg, 4th gr. – 20.08±0.33 pg (p1–4=0.07)], as well as increase in the level of TGF-β1 in peripheral blood [1st gr. – 15.55±2.13 ng/ml, 2nd gr. – 14.81± 2.36 ng/ml, 3rd gr. – 17.02±2.53 ng/ml, 4th gr. – 22.14±2.29 ng/ml (p1–4<0.05)] and the expression of nuclear factor NF-kB in the liver cells [1st gr. – 16.10± 0.60 ng/ml; 2nd gr. – 15.14±2.28 ng/ml; 3rd gr. – 15.85±2.09 ng/ml; 4th gr. – 20.49±1.68 ng/ml (p1–4<0.05)].
Keywords:flavonoids, rutin, hesperidin, immunity, hematology, lymphocyte subpopulations, cytokines, nuclear factor NF-kB