Lead toxicity at its joint administration with nanostructured silica
Nanoparticles (NPs) are present in the composition of the objects in the environment and foods together with contaminants of conventional nature, and may enhance their toxicity in certain conditions. The aim of this work was to study the effect of nanostructured silicon dioxide (SiO2), widely used as a food additive, on the accumulation and manifestation of the toxic effect of lead (Pb) when co-administered to rats in the subacute experiment. Rats were divided into 6 groups. Animals of the 1st group (control) received distilled water intragatrically by gavage. Rats of the 2nd and 3rd groups received dispersion of SiO2 NPs with primary particle size of 5–30 nm in the doses of 1 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of Group 4 – lead acetate in the dose of 20 mg of lead/kg body weight, group 5 and 6 – Pb acetate and SiO2 NPs dispersion in doses, respectively 1 and 100 mg/kg body weight, for 22 days by intragastric gavage. The weight of the body and organs, standard haematological parameters, serum protein, creatinine, uric acid, albumin, glucose level, and alkiline phosphatase, ALT and AST activity, urinary 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) were determined. Hepatocyte apoptosis was studied by flow-cytometry. The content of Pb, cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mg), aluminum (Al) and cobalt (Co) in organs (liver, kidney, brain) was determined by ICP-MS. The result showed that the introduction of Pb, but not NPs resulted in a significant increase in the mass of the kidneys and testes. Urinary excretion of 5-ALA in animals from groups 4–6 significantly (p<0,001) increased, compared with animals 1–3 groups, not influenced by SiO2 NPs administration (p>0,05). Introduction of SiO2 NPs resulted in a dose-dependent increase in blood hemoglobin, the effect of lead on this index had the opposite direction. Marked changes were noticed in the levels of glucose and serum albumin in combined exposure of Pb and NPs. No additional adverse effect was noticed in Pb co-administration with NPs on haematological parameters and hepatocyte apoptosis. Pb accumulation was revealed in the liver, kidneys and brain in animals of groups 4–6, which was not enhanced by the combined effects of NPs (p>0,05). The average biosubstrates content of Cd, As, Se, Zn, Cu, Al, Cr, Mn, Co was similar in animals treated and untreated with Pb, and demonstrated no dependence on NPs dose. The only alleged adverse impact on the trace element profile was almost twofold significant increase in the content of Al in the liver in animals treated with lead and SiO2 NPs in the highest dose (0,859±0,085 mg/kg vs 0,468±0,065 mg/kg in the 4th group, p<0,05). In the absence of lead exposure, this effect was not observed. Thus, there wasn’t obtained any unequivocal evidence of lead adverse effects potentiation in the case of a joint income with SiO2 NPs. Moreover, for some indicators, such as weight gain, serum AST activity, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte parameters, the introduction of the SiO2 NPs «abolished» to a certain extent some of the adverse effects of lead, which may be due to the effects of its enterosorption. Investigation of the influence of different types of NPs on the intestinal absorption and toxicity of various chemical contaminants should be continued.
Keywords:nanoparticle(s), silica, lead, rats, toxicity, trace elements, ICP-MS