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Genetic rat models of type 2 diabetes for evaluation the effectiveness of minor biologically active food substances

AbstractThe purposeful use of plant minor biologically active food substances (with demonstrated evident hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant action) in the composition of specialized dietary products can become the innovative approach for the dietary treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical testing of minor biologically active food substances of plant origin and their further use in the composition of specialized dietary products should be preceded by the stage of complex physiological and biochemical studies in vivo. It all turns on the question: to which extent the results obtained with the biomodel can be extrapolated on the human body. Hence, this review comparatively evaluates the rat models of type 2 diabetes. In this paper, we overview the most frequently used monogenic models of obesity with the damage of the leptin signaling pathway, when the animal loses control over saturation, hyperphagia and subsequent obesity appear. We describe polygenic models of obesity-related diabetes with fatty rats, which are more approximated to type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans. The characteristic of the type 2 diabetes model without obesity is given in the article: the SDT (Spontaneously Diabetic Torii) rats are genetically predisposed to glucose intolerance. Spontaneously Diabetic Torii-fa/fa (SDT fatty) rat is a new model of obese type 2 diabetes. Both male and female SDT fatty rats show overt obesity, and hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are observed at a younger age as compared with SDT rats. In conclusion, the SDT fatty rats are useful as a model for the development of new drugs and/or specialized dietary products to reduce body fat mass.

Keywords:type 2 diabetes mellitus, diabetic complications, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperphagia, neuropathy, biomodels, the SDT fatty rats

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