Biologically active substances of cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.)
10 samples of fresh-frozen cornelian cherry fruits (Cornus mas L.), collected in the Tambov and the Caucasus regions, were investigated for the total amount and composition of the main biologically active substances (BAS): anthocyanins (AC), proanthocyanidins (OPC), dihydroxycinnamic acids (DHCA), iridoids, organic acids, mono- and disaccharides and antiradical activity in the DPPH-test in vitro. Total phenolics content determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, was 150–400 mg/100 g fresh fruit weight. The OPC content, estimated by Bate–Smith method, varied from 20–25 mg/100 g of unripe cornelian cherries to 80–430 mg/100 g of mature cornelian cherries. Total AC amount evaluated by pH-differential spectrophotometry was minimal in unripe fruits (11,2 mg /100 g), and maximal in mature fruits (92,2 mg/100 g). Profile of individual AC was determined by HPLC with UV/Vis and ESI-TOF-MS detections. 3-galactosides of cyanidin (19,0–80,3%) and pelargonidin (15,1–75,6%) were found as main anthocyanins. An original methodology for iridoid determination based on HPLC with UV and ESI-TOF-MS detection was developed. The main iridoids were identified as loganic acid, loganin, sweroside and cornuside. Total iridoids content was 130–400 mg/100 g, and loganic acid was predominant in all samples (87,6–94,8%). Only minor amount of the DHCA derivatives (<10 mg/100 g) were found. The malic acid was predominant among organic acids, the total content of which varied from 0,4 to 2,8%. Relatively high amount of ascorbic acid (35–60 mg/100 g) was found. The carbohydrates profile of cornelian cherries was represented by fructose (2,2–3,8%) and glucose (2,5–7,0%). 70% water-ethanol extracts of Cornus mas fruits have showed pronounced antiradical activity in DPPH-test (470,5–932,0 mg TE/100 g). The data on specific minor BAS can be used in the standardization and evaluation of potential biological activity of extracts and dietary supplements based on the cornelian cherry fruits.
Keywords:cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.), polyphenols, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, iridoids, organic acids, DPPH