Toxicological assessment of nanostructured silica. I. Integral indices, adducts of dna, tissue thiols and apoptosis in liver
The purpose of this study is evaluation of some parameters of toxicity of nanostructured SiO2 when orally administered to rats for 3 months. We used commercial SiO2 preparation, obtained by gas-phase hydrolysis of tetrachlorosilane with a size of the primary nanoparticles close to 5–30 nm, which was characterized as NM by several independent methods. SiO2 in the form of sonicated aqueous dispersion was administered to male rats with initial weight of 80±4 g for the first 30 days by intragastric gavage and then for 62 days with consumed diets in daily dose of 0,1; 1,0; 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The control animals received vehicle – deionized water. Weight gain, relative mass of internal organs, intestinal permeability to protein macromolecules (determination of ovalbumin level in blood serum by solid-phase bivalent immunoassay), urinary excretion of oxidative degradation product of DNA 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-G) (by reversed phase HPLC), the level of thiol compounds in liver (spectrophotometrically), liver cell apoptosis (flow cytometer), fixing efficiency of passive avoidance (CRPA) have been measured. It has been shown that three-month administration of nanostructured SiO2 in all doses resulted in animal body weight decrease by 10–15%; a significant increase in adrenal weight was noticed under doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg and urinary 8-oxo-G excretion was significantly reduced at the dose 10 mg/kg. At the maximum dose of NM, 100 mg/kg, after 2 months of administration the number of animals decreased that entered the dark compartment of the experimental setup at initial testing of CRPA. The rest of the studied indices did not experience any significant changes depending on the dose of NM. It is concluded that no toxic effect were expressed in indices studied under the influence of nanostructured SiO2 in rats at daily doses up to 100 mg per kg body weight for 3 months.
Keywords:silica, nanoparticles, rats, subacute toxicity, adducts of DNA, glutathione, intestinal permeability, apoptosis, behavioral reactions