Features of organization of nutrition for young athletes
AbstractOrganization of nutrition for young athletes implied a regime, which includes the distribution of meals throughout the day, the multiplicity of power an nutrients that must be strictly consistent with the mode of the training process. Athletes’ requirements in energy and nutrients vary considerably depending on the sport discipline and the amount of intense of physical activity. In the Institute of Nutrition of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences the recommended average daily sets of products, which are based on daily energy expenditure of young athletes, depending on the duration and intensity of physical activity in diverse kinds sports has been developed, these kits provide young athletes the necessary nutrients and micronutrients. In precompetitive period athletes must be given high physical activity and the diet should be mainly protein and fat-containing, with a high level of fiber. The training process should be intense for three days, then the athlete is advised to transfer to the carbohydrate-rich diet that is combined with a significant reduction in the intensity of trainings – glycogen super compensation. During competition period meal should be well digestible and low-volume. It must contain proteins of high biological values and carbohydrates in the required quantity. During this period the inclusion of new dishes and products in the menu for athletes is not desirable. During marathon the main aim is to recover the energy, water, mineral resources, and to maintain normal blood glucose concentrations. This is achieved in the following ways: carbohydrate intake with a relatively small amount of liquid, high product content of vitamins and minerals that helps to maintain the water-salt metabolism at the appropriate level, taking food in liquid form, in small portions. In the recovery period adequate nutrition should achieve the following objectives: to restore the acid-base and fluid and electrolyte balance, eliminate the effect of metabolic products (urea, lactic acid, ammonia, etc) associated with high physical activity; restore carbohydrate stores, provide plastic exchange, synthesis processes. The article also contains the basic sanitary and epidemiological requirements for the catering departments, selection of products and sports doctors.
Keywords:young athletes, requirements in energy and nutrients, daily food sets